Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrateSocratic traditionDeath of Socratesdrinking a glass of hemlockSocratic schoolSocratic thoughtSocraticsSokrat
Socrates (, ; c. 470 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.wikipedia
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Xenophon

Xen.Xenoph.Xenophon of Lampsacus
An enigmatic figure, he made no writings, and is known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers writing after his lifetime, particularly his students Plato and Xenophon.
431 – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.

Antisthenes

Other sources include the contemporaneous Antisthenes, Aristippus, and Aeschines of Sphettos.
365 BC) was a Greek philosopher and a pupil of Socrates.

Western philosophy

Westernlate modern philosophyphilosophy
470 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
A key figure in Greek philosophy is Socrates.

Plato

dialoguesPlato's dialoguesPlatonic dialogue
An enigmatic figure, he made no writings, and is known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers writing after his lifetime, particularly his students Plato and Xenophon.
Along with his teacher, Socrates, and his most famous student, Aristotle, Plato laid the foundations of Western philosophy and science.

Virtue ethics

virtue theoryvirtuevirtue ethicist
470 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Virtue ethics began with Socrates, and was subsequently developed further by Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics.

Aristippus

Aristippus of CyreneAristippAristippus the Elder of Cyrene
Other sources include the contemporaneous Antisthenes, Aristippus, and Aeschines of Sphettos.
He was a pupil of Socrates, but adopted a very different philosophical outlook, teaching that the goal of life was to seek pleasure by circumstances to oneself and by maintaining proper control over both adversity and prosperity.

Aeschines of Sphettus

AeschinesAeschines of SphettosAeschines the Socratic
Other sources include the contemporaneous Antisthenes, Aristippus, and Aeschines of Sphettos.
Aeschines of Sphettus (Αἰσχίνης Σφήττιος, c. 425 BC – c. 350 BC) or Aeschines Socraticus, son of Lysanias, of the deme Sphettus of Athens, was a philosopher who in his youth a follower of Socrates.

Classical Athens

AthensAthenianAthenians
470 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
In the classical period, Athens was a center for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Akademia and Aristotle's Lyceum, Athens was also the birthplace of Socrates, Plato, Pericles, Aristophanes, Sophocles, and many other prominent philosophers, writers and politicians of the ancient world.

Aristophanes

AristophanicOld Comedyparabasis
Aristophanes, a playwright, is the only source to have written during his lifetime.
His powers of ridicule were feared and acknowledged by influential contemporaries; Plato singled out Aristophanes' play The Clouds as slander that contributed to the trial and subsequent condemning to death of Socrates, although other satirical playwrights had also caricatured the philosopher.

Socratic dialogue

dialoguedialoguesSocratic literature
These writings are the Sokratikoi logoi, or Socratic dialogues, which consist of reports of conversations apparently involving Socrates.
The dialogues are either dramatic or narrative and Socrates is often the main participant.

Symposium (Plato)

SymposiumPlato's ''SymposiumPlato's Symposium
The character of Socrates as exhibited in Apology, Crito, Phaedo and Symposium concurs with other sources to an extent to which it seems possible to rely on the Platonic Socrates, as demonstrated in the dialogues, as a representation of the actual Socrates as he lived in history.
The men include the philosopher Socrates, the general and political figure Alcibiades, and the comic playwright Aristophanes.

Apology (Plato)

ApologyApology of SocratesThe Apology
The character of Socrates as exhibited in Apology, Crito, Phaedo and Symposium concurs with other sources to an extent to which it seems possible to rely on the Platonic Socrates, as demonstrated in the dialogues, as a representation of the actual Socrates as he lived in history.
The Apology of Socrates (, Apología Sokrátous; Latin: Apologia Socratis), by Plato, is the Socratic dialogue that presents the speech of legal self-defence, which Socrates presented at his trial for impiety and corruption, in 399 BC.

Ethics

ethicalmoral philosophyethic
470 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Virtue ethics describes the character of a moral agent as a driving force for ethical behavior, and it is used to describe the ethics of Socrates, Aristotle, and other early Greek philosophers.

Phaedo

PhaedPhaidonsame name
The character of Socrates as exhibited in Apology, Crito, Phaedo and Symposium concurs with other sources to an extent to which it seems possible to rely on the Platonic Socrates, as demonstrated in the dialogues, as a representation of the actual Socrates as he lived in history.
It is set in the last hours prior to the death of Socrates, and is Plato's fourth and last dialogue to detail the philosopher's final days, following Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito.

Athens

AthenianAtheniansAthens, Greece
Two factors emerge from all sources pertaining to the character of Socrates: that he was ugly, and had a brilliant intellect. He lived entirely within ancient Athens, he made no writings, and he was executed by drinking hemlock.
The playwrights Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides flourished in Athens during this time, as did the historians Herodotus and Thucydides, the physician Hippocrates, and the philosopher Socrates.

The Clouds

CloudsAristophanes's same-titled comedyNubes
The testimony of Xenophon and Aristotle, alongside some of Aristophanes's work (especially The Clouds), is useful in fleshing out a perception of Socrates beyond Plato's work.
The play also, however, remains notorious for its caricature of Socrates and is mentioned in Plato's Apology as a contributor to the philosopher's trial and execution.

Sophist

sophistrysophistssophistic
However, in The Clouds, Aristophanes portrays Socrates as accepting payment for teaching and running a Sophist school with Chaerephon.
The early sophists' practice of charging money, often employed by rich people, for education and providing wisdom only to those who could pay resulted in the condemnations made by Socrates through Plato in his Dialogues, as well as by Xenophon in his Memorabilia and, somewhat controversially, by Aristotle who, being paid to tutor Alexander the Great, could be accused of being a Sophist (although Aristotle did not actually accept payment from Philip, Alexander's father, but requested that, in lieu of payment, Philip reconstruct Aristotle's home town of Stageira, which Philip had destroyed in a previous campaign, terms which Philip accepted).

Chaerephon

However, in The Clouds, Aristophanes portrays Socrates as accepting payment for teaching and running a Sophist school with Chaerephon.
Chaerephon (, Chairephōn; c. 470/460 – 403/399 BCE), of the Athenian deme Sphettus, was an Ancient Greek best remembered as a loyal friend and follower of Socrates.

Symposium (Xenophon)

SymposiumThe SymposiumSymposium'' (Xenophon)
The problem of understanding Socrates as a philosopher is shown in the following: In Xenophon's Symposium, Socrates is reported as saying he devotes himself only to what he regards as the most important art or occupation, that of discussing philosophy.
The Symposium is a Socratic dialogue written by Xenophon in the late 360's B.C. In it, Socrates and a few of his companions attend a symposium (a lighthearted dinner party at which Greek aristocrats could have discussions and enjoy entertainment) hosted by Kallias for the young man Autolykos.

Xanthippe

Patience of SocratesSocrates' wife Xantippe
Socrates married Xanthippe, who is especially remembered for having an undesirable temperament.
Xanthippe (Ξανθίππη, ; 5th – 4th century BCE) was an ancient Athenian, the wife of Socrates and mother of their three sons: Lamprocles, Sophroniscus, and Menexenus.

Simon the Shoemaker

Simon
Most notable among them was Simon the Shoemaker.
Simon the Shoemaker (fl. c. late 5th century BC) was an associate of Socrates, and a 'working-philosopher'.

Crito

accepted his fatehis own eponymous dialogue
The character of Socrates as exhibited in Apology, Crito, Phaedo and Symposium concurs with other sources to an extent to which it seems possible to rely on the Platonic Socrates, as demonstrated in the dialogues, as a representation of the actual Socrates as he lived in history.
It depicts a conversation between Socrates and his wealthy friend Crito regarding justice, injustice, and the appropriate response to injustice.

Lamprocles

She bore for him three sons, Lamprocles, Sophroniscus and Menexenus.
Lamprocles was Socrates' and Xanthippe's eldest son.

Sophroniscus

His father was Sophroniscus, a sculptor, or stonemason.
Sophroniscus (Greek: Σωφρονίσκος, Sophroniskos), husband of Phaenarete, was the father of the Philosopher Socrates.

Menexenus

She bore for him three sons, Lamprocles, Sophroniscus and Menexenus.
Menexenus was one of the three sons of Socrates and Xanthippe.