Socrates

SocraticSocrateSokratessocratic traditionSocratic schooldrinking a glass of hemlockSocratic thoughtthe philosopherDeath of SocratesSocratics
Socrates (, ; c. 470 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.wikipedia
1,333 Related Articles

Plato

Plato’sdialoguesPlatonic dialogue
An enigmatic figure, he made no writings, and is known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers writing after his lifetime, particularly his students Plato and Xenophon. Plato's dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple. Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the fields of ethics and epistemology. It is this who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus.
Along with his teacher, Socrates, and his most famous student, Aristotle, Plato laid the foundations of Western philosophy and science.

Xenophon

Xen.Xenophon of LampsacusXenoph.
An enigmatic figure, he made no writings, and is known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers writing after his lifetime, particularly his students Plato and Xenophon.
430 – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.

Antisthenes

Other sources include the contemporaneous Antisthenes, Aristippus, and Aeschines of Sphettos.
365 BC) was a Greek philosopher and a pupil of Socrates.

Aristippus

Aristippus of CyreneAristippAristippus the Elder of Cyrene
Other sources include the contemporaneous Antisthenes, Aristippus, and Aeschines of Sphettos.
He was a pupil of Socrates, but adopted a very different philosophical outlook, teaching that the goal of life was to seek pleasure by circumstances to oneself and by maintaining proper control over both adversity and prosperity.

Western philosophy

Westernlate modern philosophyphilosophy
470 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
A key figure in Greek philosophy is Socrates.

Aeschines of Sphettus

AeschinesAeschines of SphettosAeschines the Socratic
Other sources include the contemporaneous Antisthenes, Aristippus, and Aeschines of Sphettos.
Aeschines of Sphettus or Aeschines Socraticus (sometimes but now rarely written as Aischines or Æschines; c. 425 BC – c. 350 BC), son of Lysanias, of the deme Sphettus of Athens, was in his youth a follower of Socrates.

Virtue ethics

virtue theoryvirtuevirtues
470 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Virtue ethics began with Socrates, and was subsequently developed further by Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics.

Symposium (Plato)

SymposiumPlato's ''SymposiumPlato's Symposium
The character of Socrates as exhibited in Apology, Crito, Phaedo and Symposium concurs with other sources to an extent to which it seems possible to rely on the Platonic Socrates, as demonstrated in the dialogues, as a representation of the actual Socrates as he lived in history.
The men include the philosopher Socrates, the general and political figure Alcibiades, and the comic playwright Aristophanes.

Aristophanes

AristophanicparabasisOld Comedy
Aristophanes, a playwright, is the only source to have written during his lifetime.
His powers of ridicule were feared and acknowledged by influential contemporaries; Plato singled out Aristophanes' play The Clouds as slander that contributed to the trial and subsequent condemning to death of Socrates, although other satirical playwrights had also caricatured the philosopher.

Socratic dialogue

dialoguedialoguesSocratic literature
These writings are the Sokratikoi logoi, or Socratic dialogues, which consist of reports of conversations apparently involving Socrates.
The dialogues are either dramatic or narrative and Socrates is often the main participant.

Apology (Plato)

ApologyApology of SocratesThe Apology
The character of Socrates as exhibited in Apology, Crito, Phaedo and Symposium concurs with other sources to an extent to which it seems possible to rely on the Platonic Socrates, as demonstrated in the dialogues, as a representation of the actual Socrates as he lived in history.
The Apology of Socrates (, Apología Sokrátous; Latin: Apologia Socratis), by Plato, is the Socratic dialogue that presents the speech of legal self-defence, which Socrates presented at his trial for impiety and corruption, in 399 BC.

Classical Athens

AthensAthenianAthenians
470 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
In the classical period, Athens was a center for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Akademia and Aristotle's Lyceum, Athens was also the birthplace of Socrates, Plato, Pericles, Aristophanes, Sophocles, and many other prominent philosophers, writers and politicians of the ancient world.

Phaedo

Phaidonsame namePhaed
The character of Socrates as exhibited in Apology, Crito, Phaedo and Symposium concurs with other sources to an extent to which it seems possible to rely on the Platonic Socrates, as demonstrated in the dialogues, as a representation of the actual Socrates as he lived in history.
It is set in the last hours prior to the death of Socrates, and is Plato's fourth and last dialogue to detail the philosopher's final days, following Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito.

Xanthippe

Socrates' wife XantippePatience of Socrates
Socrates married Xanthippe, who is especially remembered for having an undesirable temperament.
Xanthippe (Ξανθίππη, ; 5th – 4th century BCE) was an ancient Athenian, the wife of Socrates and mother of their three sons: Lamprocles, Sophroniscus, and Menexenus.

Simon the Shoemaker

Simon
Most notable among them was Simon the Shoemaker.
Simon the Shoemaker (fl. c. late 5th century BC) was an associate of Socrates, and a 'working-philosopher'.

Sophist

sophistssophistrysophism
However, in The Clouds, Aristophanes portrays Socrates as accepting payment for teaching and running a Sophist school with Chaerephon.
The early sophists' practice of charging money, often employed by rich people, for education and providing wisdom only to those who could pay resulted in the condemnations made by Socrates through Plato in his Dialogues, as well as by Xenophon in his Memorabilia and, somewhat controversially, by Aristotle who, being paid to tutor Alexander the Great, could be accused of being a Sophist (although Aristotle did not actually accept payment from Philip, Alexander's father, but requested that, in lieu of payment, Philip reconstruct Aristotle's home town of Stageira, which Philip had destroyed in a previous campaign, terms which Philip accepted).

The Clouds

CloudsNubesAristophanes's same-titled comedy
The testimony of Xenophon and Aristotle, alongside some of Aristophanes's work (especially The Clouds), is useful in fleshing out a perception of Socrates beyond Plato's work.
The play also, however, remains notorious for its caricature of Socrates and is mentioned in Plato's Apology as a contributor to the philosopher's trial and execution.

Chaerephon

However, in The Clouds, Aristophanes portrays Socrates as accepting payment for teaching and running a Sophist school with Chaerephon.
Chaerephon (, Chairephōn; c. 470/460 – 403/399 BCE), of the Athenian deme Sphettus, was an Ancient Greek best remembered as a loyal friend and follower of Socrates.

Ethics

ethicalmoral philosophyethic
470 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought. Plato's dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple. Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the fields of ethics and epistemology. It is this who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus.
Virtue ethics describes the character of a moral agent as a driving force for ethical behavior, and it is used to describe the ethics of Socrates, Aristotle, and other early Greek philosophers.

Lamprocles

She bore for him three sons, Lamprocles, Sophroniscus and Menexenus.
Lamprocles was Socrates' and Xanthippe's eldest son.

Symposium (Xenophon)

SymposiumThe SymposiumXenophon's ''Symposium
The problem of understanding Socrates as a philosopher is shown in the following: In Xenophon's Symposium, Socrates is reported as saying he devotes himself only to what he regards as the most important art or occupation, that of discussing philosophy.
The Symposium is a Socratic dialogue written by Xenophon in the late 360's B.C. In it, Socrates and a few of his companions attend a symposium (a lighthearted dinner party at which Greek aristocrats could have discussions and enjoy entertainment) hosted by Kallias for the young man Autolykos.

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
Plato's dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple. Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the fields of ethics and epistemology. It is this who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus.
In the Theaetetus, Socrates considers a number of theories as to what knowledge is, the last being that knowledge is true belief "with an account" (meaning explained or defined in some way).

Sophroniscus

His father was Sophroniscus, a sculptor, or stonemason.
Sophroniscus (Greek: Σωφρονίσκος, Sophroniskos), husband of Phaenarete, was the father of the philosopher Socrates.

Menexenus

She bore for him three sons, Lamprocles, Sophroniscus and Menexenus.
Menexenus was one of the three sons of Socrates and Xanthippe.

Crito

accepted his fatehis own eponymous dialogue
The character of Socrates as exhibited in Apology, Crito, Phaedo and Symposium concurs with other sources to an extent to which it seems possible to rely on the Platonic Socrates, as demonstrated in the dialogues, as a representation of the actual Socrates as he lived in history.
It depicts a conversation between Socrates and his wealthy friend Crito regarding justice, injustice, and the appropriate response to injustice.