Socratic method

Socraticmaieuticelenchusmaieuticselenchoselencticmethod of elenchusasking direct questionsCivil Discoursecritical discussion
The Socratic method, also known as maieutics, method of elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate, is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presuppositions.wikipedia
259 Related Articles

Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrate
This method is named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates and is introduced by him in Plato's Theaetetus as midwifery (maieutics) because it is employed to bring out definitions implicit in the interlocutors' beliefs, or to help them further their understanding.
Plato's dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple. Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the fields of ethics and epistemology. It is this who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus.

Dialectic

dialecticsdialecticaldialectical method
It is a dialectical method, involving a discussion in which the defense of one point of view is questioned; one participant may lead another to contradict themselves in some way, thus weakening the defender's point.
The Socratic dialogues are a particular form of dialectic known as the method of elenchus (literally, "refutation, scrutiny" ) whereby a series of questions clarifies a more precise statement of a vague belief, logical consequences of that statement are explored, and a contradiction is discovered.

Question

answerwh-questionquestions
The basic form is a series of questions formulated as tests of logic and fact intended to help a person or group discover their beliefs about some topic, exploring definitions or logoi (singular logos) and seeking to characterize general characteristics shared by various particular instances.
Raising a question may guide the questioner along an avenue of research (see Socratic method).

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
In the second half of the 5th century BC, sophists were teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric to entertain, impress, or persuade an audience to accept the speaker's point of view.
Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation.

Theaetetus (dialogue)

TheaetetusTheatetuseponymous Socratic dialogue
This method is named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates and is introduced by him in Plato's Theaetetus as midwifery (maieutics) because it is employed to bring out definitions implicit in the interlocutors' beliefs, or to help them further their understanding.
Socrates considers his philosophical work as midwifery (Maieutics).

Ancient Greek philosophy

Greek philosopherGreekGreek philosophers
This method is named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates and is introduced by him in Plato's Theaetetus as midwifery (maieutics) because it is employed to bring out definitions implicit in the interlocutors' beliefs, or to help them further their understanding.
The fact that many conversations involving Socrates (as recounted by Plato and Xenophon) end without having reached a firm conclusion, or aporetically, has stimulated debate over the meaning of the Socratic method.

Socratic dialogue

dialoguedialoguesSocratic literature
Plato famously formalized the Socratic elenctic style in prose—presenting Socrates as the curious questioner of some prominent Athenian interlocutor—in some of his early dialogues, such as Euthyphro and Ion, and the method is most commonly found within the so-called "Socratic dialogues", which generally portray Socrates engaging in the method and questioning his fellow citizens about moral and epistemological issues.
The discussion of moral and philosophical problems between two or more characters in a dialogue is an illustration of one version of the Socratic method.

Sophist

sophistrysophistssophistic
In the second half of the 5th century BC, sophists were teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric to entertain, impress, or persuade an audience to accept the speaker's point of view.
In comparison, Socrates accepted no fee, instead professed a self-effacing posture, which he exemplified by Socratic questioning (i.e., the Socratic method, although Diogenes Laërtius wrote that Protagoras—a sophist—invented the "Socratic" method ). His attitude towards the Sophists was by no means oppositional; in one dialogue Socrates even stated that the Sophists were better educators than he was, which he validated by sending one of his students to study under a sophist.

Socratic questioning

SocraticquestioningSocratic questions
Socratic questioning is used to help students apply the activity to their learning. The Socratic method, in the form of Socratic questioning, has been adapted for psychotherapy, most prominently in classical Adlerian psychotherapy, logotherapy, rational emotive behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and reality therapy.
Socratic questioning (or Socratic maieutics) was named after Socrates, who was a philosopher in c. 470 BCE–c.

Aporia

aporeticaporeticallyquizzicality
Most Socratic inquiries consist of a series of elenchi and typically end in puzzlement known as aporia.
Socrates then, through elenctic testing, shows his interlocutor that his answer is unsatisfactory.

Pedagogy

pedagoguepedagogicalpedagogic
The pedagogy of Socratic questions is open-ended, focusing on broad, general ideas rather than specific, factual information.
One example would be the Socratic method.

Socrates Cafe

Socrates Cafe
Socrates Café are gatherings around the world where people from different backgrounds get together and exchange philosophical perspectives based on their experiences, using the version of the Socratic Method developed by founder Christopher Phillips.

The Paper Chase (film)

The Paper Chase1973 film1973 film adaptation
The Paper Chase, based on a 1970 novel of the same name, dramatizing the use of the Socratic method in law school classes
When Kingsfield immediately delves into the material using the Socratic method and asks Hart the first question, Hart is totally unprepared and feels so utterly humiliated that, after class, he throws up in the bathroom.

Harkness table

Harkness MethodHarknessHarkness education
Harkness table, a teaching method based on the Socratic method
The style is related to the Socratic method.

Classical Adlerian psychotherapy

Adlerian therapy
The Socratic method, in the form of Socratic questioning, has been adapted for psychotherapy, most prominently in classical Adlerian psychotherapy, logotherapy, rational emotive behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and reality therapy.
The Socratic method is aimed to guide clients to clarify feelings and meanings, gain insight to intentions and consequences and to consider alternative options.

Michel Weber

Weber, Michel
In Europe Gerd B. Achenbach is probably the best known practitioner, and Michel Weber has also proposed another variant of the practice.
Philosophical Counseling is a recent movement, probably begun in the United States, employing Socratic methods of dialog for the purpose of short-term counseling that, without seeking to replace more traditional psychotherapies, nevertheless offers an alternative to them.

The Paper Chase (novel)

The Paper Chase1970 novelnovel of the same name
The Paper Chase, based on a 1970 novel of the same name, dramatizing the use of the Socratic method in law school classes
Kingsfield is an imperious, highly respected (and feared) professor of contracts at Harvard Law School, known for his unrelenting use of the Socratic method on his students.

Marva Collins

Marva Delores CollinsThe Marva Collins Story
Marva Collins
Collins was known for applying classical education, in particular the Socratic method, modified for use in primary schools, successfully with impoverished students.

Critical thinking

criticalcritical analysiscritical thought
The Socratic method, also known as maieutics, method of elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate, is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presuppositions.

Plato

dialoguesPlato's dialoguesPlatonic dialogue
This method is named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates and is introduced by him in Plato's Theaetetus as midwifery (maieutics) because it is employed to bring out definitions implicit in the interlocutors' beliefs, or to help them further their understanding. Plato famously formalized the Socratic elenctic style in prose—presenting Socrates as the curious questioner of some prominent Athenian interlocutor—in some of his early dialogues, such as Euthyphro and Ion, and the method is most commonly found within the so-called "Socratic dialogues", which generally portray Socrates engaging in the method and questioning his fellow citizens about moral and epistemological issues.

Logic

logicianlogicallogics
The basic form is a series of questions formulated as tests of logic and fact intended to help a person or group discover their beliefs about some topic, exploring definitions or logoi (singular logos) and seeking to characterize general characteristics shared by various particular instances.

Belief

beliefsreligious beliefbelief system
The basic form is a series of questions formulated as tests of logic and fact intended to help a person or group discover their beliefs about some topic, exploring definitions or logoi (singular logos) and seeking to characterize general characteristics shared by various particular instances.

Logos

λόγοςWordWord of God
The basic form is a series of questions formulated as tests of logic and fact intended to help a person or group discover their beliefs about some topic, exploring definitions or logoi (singular logos) and seeking to characterize general characteristics shared by various particular instances.

Rhetoric

rhetoricianrhetoricalrhetor
In the second half of the 5th century BC, sophists were teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric to entertain, impress, or persuade an audience to accept the speaker's point of view.

Athens

AthenianAtheniansAthens, Greece
Socrates began to engage in such discussions with his fellow Athenians after his friend from youth, Chaerephon, visited the Oracle of Delphi, which confirmed that no man in Greece was wiser than Socrates.