Socratic methodwikipedia
The Socratic method, also known as maieutics, method of elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate, is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presuppositions.
Socraticsocratic methodmaieuticelenchusmaieuticselencticmethod of elenchuselenchosSocratic educationSocratic rationalism

Socrates

SocraticSocratesSocrate
This method is named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates and is introduced by him in Plato's Theaetetus as midwifery (maieutics) because it is employed to bring out definitions implicit in the interlocutors' beliefs, or to help them further their understanding.
Plato's dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple. Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the fields of ethics and epistemology. It is this who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus.

Philosophy

philosophyphilosophicalphilosopher
In the second half of the 5th century BCE, sophists were teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric to entertain, impress, or persuade an audience to accept the speaker's point of view.
Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation.

Question

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The basic form is a series of questions formulated as tests of logic and fact intended to help a person or group discover their beliefs about some topic, exploring definitions or logoi (singular logos) and seeking to characterize general characteristics shared by various particular instances.
Raising a question may guide the questioner along an avenue of research (see Socratic method).

Dialectic

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It is a dialectical method, involving a discussion in which the defense of one point of view is questioned; one participant may lead another to contradict themselves in some way, thus weakening the defender's point.
The Socratic dialogues are a particular form of dialectic known as the method of elenchus (literally, "refutation, scrutiny" ) whereby a series of questions clarifies a more precise statement of a vague belief, logical consequences of that statement are explored, and a contradiction is discovered.

Socratic dialogue

dialoguedialoguesSocratic literature
Plato famously formalized the Socratic elenctic style in prose—presenting Socrates as the curious questioner of some prominent Athenian interlocutor—in some of his early dialogues, such as Euthyphro and Ion, and the method is most commonly found within the so-called "Socratic dialogues", which generally portray Socrates engaging in the method and questioning his fellow citizens about moral and epistemological issues.
The discussion of moral and philosophical problems between two or more characters in a dialogue is an illustration of one version of the Socratic method.

Theaetetus (dialogue)

TheaetetusTheatetusTheætetus
This method is named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates and is introduced by him in Plato's Theaetetus as midwifery (maieutics) because it is employed to bring out definitions implicit in the interlocutors' beliefs, or to help them further their understanding.
Socrates considers his philosophical work as midwifery (Maieutics).

Ancient Greek philosophy

ancient Greek philosophyGreek philosopherGreek
This method is named after the Classical Greek philosopher Socrates and is introduced by him in Plato's Theaetetus as midwifery (maieutics) because it is employed to bring out definitions implicit in the interlocutors' beliefs, or to help them further their understanding.
The fact that many conversations involving Socrates (as recounted by Plato and Xenophon) end without having reached a firm conclusion, or aporetically, has stimulated debate over the meaning of the Socratic method.

Socratic questioning

Socraticsocratic questioningSocratic questions
Socratic questioning is used to help students apply the activity to their learning. The Socratic method, in the form of Socratic questioning, has been adapted for psychotherapy, most prominently in Classical Adlerian psychotherapy, Logotherapy, Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy, Cognitive Therapy and Reality Therapy.
Socratic questioning (or Socratic maieutics) was named after Socrates, who was a philosopher in c. 470 BCE–c.

Pedagogy

pedagogypedagoguepedagogical
The pedagogy of Socratic questions is open-ended, focusing on broad, general ideas rather than specific, factual information.
One example would be the Socratic method.

Socrates Cafe

Socrates Café are gatherings around the world where people from different backgrounds get together and exchange philosophical perspectives based on their experiences, using the version of the Socratic Method developed by founder Christopher Phillips.

Sophist

sophistsophistssophistry
In the second half of the 5th century BCE, sophists were teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric to entertain, impress, or persuade an audience to accept the speaker's point of view.
In comparison, Socrates accepted no fee, instead professed a self-effacing posture, which he exemplified by Socratic questioning (i.e., the Socratic method, although Diogenes Laertius wrote that Protagoras—a sophist—invented the "Socratic" method ). His attitude towards the Sophists was by no means oppositional; in one dialogue Socrates even stated that the Sophists were better educators than he was, which he validated by sending one of his students to study under a sophist.

The Paper Chase (film)

The Paper ChasePaper Chasefilm of the same title
When Kingsfield immediately delves into the material using the Socratic method and asks Hart the first question, Hart is totally unprepared and feels so utterly humiliated that, after class, he throws up in the bathroom.

Aporia

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Most Socratic inquiries consist of a series of elenchi and typically end in puzzlement known as aporia.
Socrates then, through elenctic testing, shows his interlocutor that his answer is unsatisfactory.

Harkness table

Harkness MethodHarkness educationHarkness
The style is related to the Socratic method.

Classical Adlerian psychotherapy

classical Adlerian psychotherapyAdlerian therapy
The Socratic method, in the form of Socratic questioning, has been adapted for psychotherapy, most prominently in Classical Adlerian psychotherapy, Logotherapy, Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy, Cognitive Therapy and Reality Therapy.
The Socratic method is aimed to guide clients to clarify feelings and meanings, gain insight to intentions and consequences and to consider alternative options.

The Paper Chase (novel)

The Paper Chasenovel of the same nameProfessor Kingsfield
Kingsfield is an imperious, highly respected (and feared) professor of contracts at Harvard Law School, known for his unrelenting use of the Socratic method on his students.

Michel Weber

Michel WeberWeber, Michel
In Europe Gerd B. Achenbach is probably the best known practitioner, and Michel Weber has also proposed another variant of the practice.
Philosophical Counseling is a recent movement, probably begun in the United States, employing Socratic methods of dialog for the purpose of short-term counseling that, without seeking to replace more traditional psychotherapies, nevertheless offers an alternative to them.

Marva Collins

The Marva Collins Story
Collins was known for applying classical education, in particular the Socratic method, modified for use in primary schools, successfully with impoverished students.

Three Upbuilding Discourses, 1844

threeThree Upbuilding Discourses
He followed the Socratic Method by publishing his own view of life under his own name and different views of life under pseudonyms.

Oeconomicus

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The Oeconomicus by Xenophon is a Socratic dialogue principally about household management and agriculture.

List of female rhetoricians

She is mentioned in Plato's Memexenus, and is often credited with teaching the Socratic method to Socrates.

Shimer College

ShimerFrances Shimer Academy
Classroom instruction is Socratic discussion.

UCLA School of Law

UCLASchool of LawUniversity of California, Los Angeles School of Law
The Socratic method is still in use by most professors, but some faculty allow for a slightly more relaxed classroom atmosphere than at other top-tier law schools.

Learning space

learning spacecontemporary learning spaceseducational setting
The Socratic method was developed over two millennia ago in response to direct instruction in the scholae of Ancient Greece.