A report on Sodium

Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line.
A positive flame test for sodium has a bright yellow color.
The structure of sodium chloride, showing octahedral coordination around Na+ and Cl− centres. This framework disintegrates when dissolved in water and reassembles when the water evaporates.
Two equivalent images of the chemical structure of sodium stearate, a typical soap.
The structure of the complex of sodium (Na+, shown in yellow) and the antibiotic monensin-A.
NaK phase diagram, showing the melting point of sodium as a function of potassium concentration. NaK with 77% potassium is eutectic and has the lowest melting point of the NaK alloys at −12.6 °C.

Chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11.

- Sodium
Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line.

88 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The flame test of potassium.

Potassium

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Chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number19.

Chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number19.

The flame test of potassium.
Structure of solid potassium superoxide.
Potassium in feldspar
Sir Humphry Davy
Pieces of potassium metal
Sylvite from New Mexico
Monte Kali, a potash mining and beneficiation waste heap in Hesse, Germany, consisting mostly of sodium chloride.
Potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate fertilizer

Potassium is chemically very similar to sodium, the previous element in group 1 of the periodic table.

Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated

Alkali metal

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Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner was among the first to notice similarities between what are now known as the alkali metals.
Lepidolite, the rubidium mineral from which rubidium was first isolated
Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic system proposed in 1871 showing hydrogen and the alkali metals as part of his group I, along with copper, silver, and gold
Estimated abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar system. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) are rare because they are poorly synthesised in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers, and (2) a general decrease in abundance, as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Spodumene, an important lithium mineral
Effective nuclear charge on an atomic electron
Periodic trend for ionisation energy: each period begins at a minimum for the alkali metals, and ends at a maximum for the noble gases. Predicted values are used for elements beyond 104.
The variation of Pauling electronegativity (y-axis) as one descends the main groups of the periodic table from the second to the sixth period
A reaction of 3 pounds (≈ 1.4 kg) of sodium with water
Liquid NaK alloy at room temperature
Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride. On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but that would be geometrically impossible: thus lithium nitride takes on this unique crystal structure.
Structure of the octahedral n-butyllithium hexamer, (C4H9Li)6. The aggregates are held together by delocalised covalent bonds between lithium and the terminal carbon of the butyl chain. There is no direct lithium–lithium bonding in any organolithium compound.
Solid phenyllithium forms monoclinic crystals can be described as consisting of dimeric Li2(C6H5)2 subunits. The lithium atoms and the ipso carbons of the phenyl rings form a planar four-membered ring. The plane of the phenyl groups are perpendicular to the plane of this Li2C2 ring. Additional strong intermolecular bonding occurs between these phenyllithium dimers and the π electrons of the phenyl groups in the adjacent dimers, resulting in an infinite polymeric ladder structure.
Reduction reactions using sodium in liquid ammonia
Empirical (Na–Cs, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Fr–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) atomic radius of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in angstroms
Empirical (Na–Fr) and predicted (Uue) electron affinity of the alkali metals from the third to the eighth period, measured in electron volts
Empirical (Na–Fr, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Uue–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) ionisation energy of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in electron volts
Similarly to the alkali metals, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the salt ammonium chloride.
Very pure thallium pieces in a glass ampoule, stored under argon gas
This sample of uraninite contains about 100,000 atoms (3.3 g) of francium-223 at any given time.
FOCS 1, a caesium atomic clock in Switzerland
Lithium carbonate
A wheel type radiotherapy device which has a long collimator to focus the radiation into a narrow beam. The caesium-137 chloride radioactive source is the blue square, and gamma rays are represented by the beam emerging from the aperture. This was the radiation source involved in the Goiânia accident, containing about 93 grams of caesium-137 chloride.

The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).

Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discoverer of chlorine

Chlorine

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Chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

Chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele, discoverer of chlorine
Chlorine, liquefied under a pressure of 7.4 bar at room temperature, displayed in a quartz ampule embedded in acrylic glass.
Solid chlorine at −150 °C
Structure of solid deuterium chloride, with D···Cl hydrogen bonds
Hydrated nickel(II) chloride, NiCl2(H2O)6.
Yellow chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas above a solution containing chlorine dioxide.
Structure of dichlorine heptoxide, Cl2O7, the most stable of the chlorine oxides
Suggested mechanism for the chlorination of a carboxylic acid by phosphorus pentachloride to form an acyl chloride
Liquid chlorine analysis
Membrane cell process for chloralkali production
Ignaz Semmelweis
Liquid Pool Chlorine
Chlorine "attack" on an acetal resin plumbing joint resulting from a fractured acetal joint in a water supply system which started at an injection molding defect in the joint and slowly grew until the part failed; the fracture surface shows iron and calcium salts that were deposited in the leaking joint from the water supply before failure and are the indirect result of the chlorine attack

An impermeable fluoride layer is formed by sodium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, tin, and silver, which may be removed by heating.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table

Chemical element

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Species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

Species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table
Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled "atoms" is composed of chemical elements.
Periodic table showing the cosmogenic origin of each element in the Big Bang, or in large or small stars. Small stars can produce certain elements up to sulfur, by the alpha process. Supernovae are needed to produce "heavy" elements (those beyond iron and nickel) rapidly by neutron buildup, in the r-process. Certain large stars slowly produce other elements heavier than iron, in the s-process; these may then be blown into space in the off-gassing of planetary nebulae
Abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar System. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (Li, Be, B) are rare because they are poorly synthesized in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers (the Oddo-Harkins rule), and (2) a general decrease in abundance as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table: An experiment on a system of elements. Based on their atomic weights and chemical similarities.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley

For example, sodium has the chemical symbol 'Na' after the Latin natrium.

Illustration of a Hofmann electrolysis apparatus used in a school laboratory

Electrolysis

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Technique that uses direct electric current to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

Technique that uses direct electric current to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

Illustration of a Hofmann electrolysis apparatus used in a school laboratory
Hall-Heroult process for producing aluminium

1808 – Potassium (1807), sodium (1807), barium, calcium and magnesium were discovered by Humphry Davy using electrolysis.

Phase diagram of water–NaCl mixture

Sodium chloride

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Phase diagram of water–NaCl mixture
Mounds of road salt for use in winter
A class-D fire extinguisher for various metals
Sodium chloride crystal under microscope.
NaCl octahedra. The yellow stipples represent the electrostatic force between the ions of opposite charge
Modern rock salt mine near Mount Morris, New York, United States
Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea.
Mounds of salt, Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia.

Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt (although sea salt also contains other chemical salts), is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

Iron, shown here as fragments and a 1 cm3 cube, is an example of a chemical element that is a metal.

Metal

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Material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well.

Material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well.

Iron, shown here as fragments and a 1 cm3 cube, is an example of a chemical element that is a metal.
A metal in the form of a gravy boat made from stainless steel, an alloy largely composed of iron, carbon, and chromium
Gallium crystals
A metal rod with a hot-worked eyelet. Hot-working exploits the capacity of metal to be plastically deformed.
Samples of babbitt metal, an alloy of tin, antimony, and copper, used in bearings to reduce friction
A sculpture cast in nickel silver—an alloy of copper, nickel, and zinc that looks like silver
Rhodium, a noble metal, shown here as 1 g of powder, a 1 g pressed cylinder, and a 1 g pellet
A sample of diaspore, an aluminum oxide hydroxide mineral, α-AlO(OH)
A neodymium compound alloy magnet of composition Nd2Fe14B on a nickel-iron bracket from a computer hard drive
A pile of compacted steel scraps, ready for recycling
The Artemision Bronze showing either Poseidon or Zeus, c. 460 BCE, National Archaeological Museum, Athens. The figure is more than 2 m in height.
De re metallica, 1555
Platinum crystals
A disc of highly enriched uranium that was recovered from scrap processed at the Y-12 National Security Complex, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Ultrapure cerium under argon, 1.5 gm
White-hot steel pours like water from a 35-ton electric furnace, at the Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corporation, in Brackenridge, Pennsylvania.
A Ho-Mg-Zn icosahedral quasicrystal formed as a pentagonal dodecahedron, the dual of the icosahedron
Body-centered cubic crystal structure, with a 2-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. chromium, iron, and tungsten
Face-centered cubic crystal structure, with a 4-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. aluminum, copper, and gold
Hexagonal close-packed crystal structure, with a 6-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. titanium, cobalt, and zinc
Niobium crystals and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} anodized niobium cube for comparison
Molybdenum crystals and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} molybdenum cube for comparison
Tantalum single crystal, some crystalline fragments, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} tantalum cube for comparison
Tungsten rods with evaporated crystals, partially oxidized with colorful tarnish, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} tungsten cube for comparison
Rhenium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Native copper
Gold crystals
Crystalline silver
A slice of meteoric iron
alt=Three, dark broccoli shaped clumps of oxidised lead with grossly distended buds, and a cube of lead which has a dull silvery appearance.| oxidised lead
A brass weight (35 g)
A droplet of solidified molten tin
alt=A silvery molasses-like liquid being poured into a circular container with a height equivalent to a smaller coin on its edge| Mercury being
Electrum, a natural alloy of silver and gold, was often used for making coins. Shown is the Roman god Apollo, and on the obverse, a Delphi tripod (circa 310–305 BCE).
A plate made of pewter, an alloy of 85–99% tin and (usually) copper. Pewter was first used around the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Near East.
A pectoral (ornamental breastplate) made of tumbaga, an alloy of gold and copper
Arsenic, sealed in a container to prevent tarnishing
Zinc fragments and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Antimony, showing its brilliant lustre
Bismuth in crystalline form, with a very thin oxidation layer, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} bismuth cube
Sodium
Potassium pearls under paraffin oil. Size of the largest pearl is 0.5 cm.
Strontium crystals
Aluminum chunk, 2.6 grams, {{nowrap|1=1 x 2 cm}}
A bar of titanium crystals
Scandium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Lutetium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Hafnium, in the form of a 1.7 kg bar

Sodium, for example, becomes a nonmetal at pressure of just under two million times atmospheric pressure.

Atomic structure of Lithium-7

Lithium

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Chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3.

Chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3.

Atomic structure of Lithium-7
Lithium ingots with a thin layer of black nitride tarnish
Lithium floating in oil
Lithium is about as common as chlorine in the Earth's upper continental crust, on a per-atom basis.
Nova Centauri 2013 is the first in which evidence of lithium has been found.
Johan August Arfwedson is credited with the discovery of lithium in 1817
Hexameric structure of the n-butyllithium fragment in a crystal
Scatter plots of lithium grade and tonnage for selected world deposits, as of 2017
Lithium use in flares and pyrotechnics is due to its rose-red flame.
The launch of a torpedo using lithium as fuel
Lithium deuteride was used as fuel in the Castle Bravo nuclear device.
Estimates of global lithium uses in 2011 (picture) and 2019 (numbers below) 
Ceramics and glass (18%)
Batteries (65%)
Lubricating greases (5%)
Continuous casting (3%)
Air treatment (1%)
Polymers
Primary aluminum production
Pharmaceuticals
Other (5%)

Like the other alkali metals (which are sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr)), lithium has a single valence electron that is easily given up to form a cation.

Crystals of serandite, natrolite, analcime, and aegirine from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada

Mineral

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In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.

In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.

Crystals of serandite, natrolite, analcime, and aegirine from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada
Schist is a metamorphic rock characterized by an abundance of platy minerals. In this example, the rock has prominent sillimanite porphyroblasts as large as 3 cm.
Hübnerite, the manganese-rich end-member of the wolframite series, with minor quartz in the background
When minerals react, the products will sometimes assume the shape of the reagent; the product mineral is termed a pseudomorph of (or after) the reagent. Illustrated here is a pseudomorph of kaolinite after orthoclase. Here, the pseudomorph preserved the Carlsbad twinning common in orthoclase.
Topaz has a characteristic orthorhombic elongated crystal shape.
Contact twins, as seen in spinel
Diamond is the hardest natural material, and has a Mohs hardness of 10.
Pyrite has a metallic lustre.
Perfect basal cleavage as seen in biotite (black), and good cleavage seen in the matrix (pink orthoclase).
Galena, PbS, is a mineral with a high specific gravity.
Carnotite (yellow) is a radioactive uranium-bearing mineral.
Aegirine, an iron-sodium clinopyroxene, is part of the inosilicate subclass.
Natrolite is a mineral series in the zeolite group; this sample has a very prominent acicular crystal habit.
Muscovite, a mineral species in the mica group, within the phyllosilicate subclass
Asbestiform tremolite, part of the amphibole group in the inosilicate subclass
An example of elbaite, a species of tourmaline, with distinctive colour banding.
Epidote often has a distinctive pistachio-green colour.
Black andradite, an end-member of the orthosilicate garnet group.
Native gold. Rare specimen of stout crystals growing off of a central stalk, size 3.7 x 1.1 x 0.4 cm, from Venezuela.
Red cinnabar (HgS), a mercury ore, on dolomite.
Sphalerite crystal partially encased in calcite from the Devonian Milwaukee Formation of Wisconsin
Pink cubic halite (NaCl; halide class) crystals on a nahcolite matrix (NaHCO3; a carbonate, and mineral form of sodium bicarbonate, used as baking soda).
Gypsum desert rose

These eight elements, summing to over 98% of the crust by weight, are, in order of decreasing abundance: oxygen, silicon, aluminium, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium.

Sir Humphry Davy, Bt
by Thomas Phillips

Humphry Davy

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British chemist and inventor from Cornwall who invented the Davy lamp and a very early form of arc lamp.

British chemist and inventor from Cornwall who invented the Davy lamp and a very early form of arc lamp.

Sir Humphry Davy, Bt
by Thomas Phillips
James Watt in 1792 by Carl Frederik von Breda
Sir Humphry Davy's Researches chemical and philosophical: chiefly concerning nitrous oxide (1800), pp. 556 and 557 (right), outlining potential anaesthetic properties of nitrous oxide in relieving pain during surgery
1802 satirical cartoon by James Gillray showing a Royal Institution lecture on pneumatics, with Davy holding the bellows and Count Rumford looking on at extreme right. Dr Thomas Garnett is the lecturer, holding the victim's nose.
Sodium metal, about 10 g, under oil
A voltaic pile
Magnesium metal crystals
Sir Humphry Davy by Thomas Lawrence
A diamond crystal in its matrix
The Davy lamp
Statue of Davy in Penzance, Cornwall, holding his safety lamp
Michael Faraday, portrait by Thomas Phillips c. 1841–1842
Davy's grave at Cimetière Plainpalais in Geneva

He is also remembered for isolating, by using electricity, several elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as for discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.