Sodium nitrate

saltpeterNaNO 3 saltpetrenitrate of sodanitrate tradenitratesodiumE251Chile saltpetermunitions imports
Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO 3.wikipedia
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Nitratine

saltpeterChilean saltpeterSoda niter
The mineral form is also known as nitratine, nitratite or soda niter.
Nitratine or nitratite, also known as cubic niter (UK: nitre), soda niter or Chile saltpeter (UK: Chile saltpetre), is a mineral, the naturally occurring form of sodium nitrate, NaNO 3.

Nitrogen

NN 2 dinitrogen
Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO 3.
The earliest military, industrial, and agricultural applications of nitrogen compounds used saltpeter (sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate), most notably in gunpowder, and later as fertiliser.

Sodium

NaNa + sodium ion
Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO 3.
The most important sodium compounds are table salt (NaCl), soda ash (Na 2 CO 3 ), baking soda (NaHCO 3 ), caustic soda (NaOH), sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ), di- and tri-sodium phosphates, sodium thiosulfate (Na 2 S 2 O 3 ·5H 2 O), and borax (Na 2 B 4 O 7 ·10H 2 O).

Niter

saltpetersaltpetrenitre
The mineral form is also known as nitratine, nitratite or soda niter.
Related minerals are soda niter (sodium nitrate), ammonia niter or gwihabaite (ammonium nitrate), nitrostrontianite (strontium nitrate), nitrocalcite (calcium nitrate), nitromagnesite (magnesium nitrate), nitrobarite (barium nitrate) and two copper nitrates, gerhardtite and buttgenbachite; in fact all of the natural elements in the first three columns of the periodic table and numerous other cations form nitrates which are uncommonly found for the reasons given, but have been described.

War of the Pacific

Pacific WarSaltpeter Warconquered land from Peru and Bolivia
Chile fought the War of the Pacific (1879-1884) against the allies Peru and Bolivia and took over their richest deposits of saltpeter.
Potassium nitrate (ordinary saltpeter) and sodium nitrate (Chile saltpeter) are nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as salpeter, saltpetre, salitre, caliche, or nitrate.

Alkali metal nitrate

alkali metal nitrates
This alkali metal nitrate salt is also known as Chile saltpeter (large deposits of which were historically mined in Chile) to distinguish it from ordinary saltpeter, potassium nitrate.
Other uses are for coloring in fireworks: caesium nitrate produces an indigo color, potassium nitrate and rubidium nitrate produce violet colors, lithium nitrate produces a red color, and sodium nitrate produces a yellow color.

Potassium nitrate

saltpetersaltpetreKNO 3
This alkali metal nitrate salt is also known as Chile saltpeter (large deposits of which were historically mined in Chile) to distinguish it from ordinary saltpeter, potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, sodium sulfate and iodine are all obtained by the processing of caliche.
On industrial scale it is prepared by the double displacement reaction between sodium nitrate and potassium chloride.

Fertilizer

fertiliserfertilizersnitrogen fertilizer
It is a readily available source of the nitrate anion (NO 3 − ), which is useful in several reactions carried out on industrial scales for the production of fertilizers, pyrotechnics and smoke bombs, glass and pottery enamels, food preservatives (esp.
Deposits of sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) (Chilean saltpeter) are also found in the Atacama desert in Chile and was one of the original (1830) nitrogen-rich fertilizers used.

Bolivia

BOLBolivianPlurinational State of Bolivia
Chile fought the War of the Pacific (1879-1884) against the allies Peru and Bolivia and took over their richest deposits of saltpeter.
Chile took control of today's Chuquicamata area, the adjoining rich salitre (saltpeter) fields, and the port of Antofagasta among other Bolivian territories.

X-ray crystallography

X-ray diffractionprotein crystallographyX-ray
In 1919, Ralph Walter Graystone Wyckoff determined its crystal structure using X-ray crystallography.
Also in 1919 sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) and caesium dichloroiodide (CsICl 2 ) were determined by Ralph Walter Graystone Wyckoff, and the wurtzite (hexagonal ZnS) structure became known in 1920.

Nitrate

nitratesNO 3 − NO 3
It is a readily available source of the nitrate anion (NO 3 − ), which is useful in several reactions carried out on industrial scales for the production of fertilizers, pyrotechnics and smoke bombs, glass and pottery enamels, food preservatives (esp. The largest accumulations of naturally occurring sodium nitrate are found in Chile and Peru, where nitrate salts are bound within mineral deposits called caliche ore.
Nitrate salts are found naturally on earth as large deposits, particularly of nitratine, a major source of sodium nitrate.

Haber process

Haber-Bosch processHaber–Bosch processHaber-Bosch
For more than a century, the world supply of the compound was mined almost exclusively from the Atacama desert in northern Chile until, at the turn of the 20th century, German chemists Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch developed a process for producing ammonia from the atmosphere on an industrial scale (see Haber process).
The Allies had access to large sodium nitrate deposits in Chile (Chile saltpetre) controlled by British companies.

María Elena, Chile

María ElenaMaria Elena
Chile still has the largest reserves of caliche,with active mines in such locations as Pedro de Valdivia, María Elena and Pampa Blanca, and there it used to be called white gold.
Situated on land purchased from the Treasury in 1924, the plant was opened in 1926 using a sodium nitrate extraction system patented by the Guggenheim Brothers which had replaced the Shanks system.

Salt (chemistry)

saltsaltspotassium salt
This alkali metal nitrate salt is also known as Chile saltpeter (large deposits of which were historically mined in Chile) to distinguish it from ordinary saltpeter, potassium nitrate.

Fritz Haber

HaberF. HaberHaber, Fritz
For more than a century, the world supply of the compound was mined almost exclusively from the Atacama desert in northern Chile until, at the turn of the 20th century, German chemists Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch developed a process for producing ammonia from the atmosphere on an industrial scale (see Haber process).
Chile had been a major (and almost unique) producer of natural deposits such as sodium nitrate (caliche).

Food preservation

preservationpreservedfood preservative
It is a readily available source of the nitrate anion (NO 3 − ), which is useful in several reactions carried out on industrial scales for the production of fertilizers, pyrotechnics and smoke bombs, glass and pottery enamels, food preservatives (esp.
Common antimicrobial preservatives include calcium propionate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sulfites (sulfur dioxide, sodium bisulfite, potassium hydrogen sulfite, etc.), and EDTA.

Ammonium nitrate

ANammonia nitrateNH 4 NO 3
or by mixing stoichiometric amounts of ammonium nitrate and sodium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate or sodium carbonate:
Ammonium nitrate is found as a natural mineral (gwihabaite — the ammonium analogue of saltpetre, which is correctly called niter, and other nitre minerals such as sodium nitrate known as nitratine) in the driest regions of the Atacama Desert in Chile, often as a crust on the ground and/or in conjunction with other nitrate, iodate, and halide minerals.

Atacama Desert

AtacamadesertAtacama Altiplano
For more than a century, the world supply of the compound was mined almost exclusively from the Atacama desert in northern Chile until, at the turn of the 20th century, German chemists Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch developed a process for producing ammonia from the atmosphere on an industrial scale (see Haber process).
With the discovery of sodium nitrate deposits and as a result of unclear borders, the area soon became a zone of conflict and resulted in the War of the Pacific.

Nitric acid

nitricHNO 3 aqua fortis
Sodium nitrate is also synthesized industrially by neutralizing nitric acid with sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate:
Alternatively, the reaction of equal masses of any nitrate salt such as sodium nitrate with sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), and distilling this mixture at nitric acid's boiling point of 83 °C.

E number

E-numberEE numbers
Sodium nitrate is also a food additive used as a preservative and color fixative in cured meats and poultry; it is listed under its INS number 251 or E number E251.

Ammonia

NH 3 anhydrous ammonialiquid ammonia
For more than a century, the world supply of the compound was mined almost exclusively from the Atacama desert in northern Chile until, at the turn of the 20th century, German chemists Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch developed a process for producing ammonia from the atmosphere on an industrial scale (see Haber process).

Andasol Solar Power Station

AndasolAndasol 1 solar power stationAndasol 1
A mixture of sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate and potassium nitrate is used as energy-storage material in prototype plants, such as Andasol Solar Power Station and the Archimedes project.
This heat is then stored in a molten salt mixture of 60% sodium nitrate and 40% potassium nitrate.

Iodine

II 2 iodinated
Sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, sodium sulfate and iodine are all obtained by the processing of caliche.
These are the minerals that occur as trace impurities in the caliche, found in Chile, whose main product is sodium nitrate.

Caliche

calcretecalcretcalcretised
Chile still has the largest reserves of caliche,with active mines in such locations as Pedro de Valdivia, María Elena and Pampa Blanca, and there it used to be called white gold. The largest accumulations of naturally occurring sodium nitrate are found in Chile and Peru, where nitrate salts are bound within mineral deposits called caliche ore.
Salitre, in turn, is a composite of sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) and potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ).

Gunpowder

black powderpowderblack-powder
With the onset of World War I, Germany began converting ammonia from this process into a synthetic Chilean saltpeter, which was as practical as the natural compound in production of gunpowder and other munitions.
For instance, power grades of black powder, unsuitable for use in firearms but adequate for blasting rock in quarrying operations, are called blasting powder rather than gunpowder with standard proportions of 70% nitrate, 14% charcoal, and 16% sulfur; blasting powder may be made with the cheaper sodium nitrate substituted for potassium nitrate and proportions may be as low as 40% nitrate, 30% charcoal, and 30% sulfur.