Soil erosion

erosionErodedsoil erosion by waterwind erosionaccelerated soil erosioncauses of soil erosioneroded soilerodibilityeroding soilerosion of the soil
Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, one form of soil degradation.wikipedia
571 Related Articles

Soil retrogression and degradation

soil degradationdegradationdegradation of soils
Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, one form of soil degradation.
Retrogression is primarily due to soil erosion and corresponds to a phenomenon where succession reverts the land to its natural physical state.

Deforestation

deforestedland clearingforest clearing
Intensive agriculture, deforestation, roads, anthropogenic climate change and urban sprawl are amongst the most significant human activities in regard to their effect on stimulating erosion. It is also a major source of land degradation, evaporation, desertification, harmful airborne dust, and crop damage—especially after being increased far above natural rates by human activities such as deforestation, urbanization, and agriculture.
Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland.

Land degradation

degradedpoor farming practicesdegraded land
Water and wind erosion are the two primary causes of land degradation; combined, they are responsible for about 84% of the global extent of degraded land, making excessive erosion one of the most significant environmental problems worldwide.
For example, planting crops at a location with heavy rainfall and steep slopes would create scientific and environmental concern regarding the risk of soil erosion by water, yet farmers could view the location as a favourable one for high crop yields.

Surface runoff

runoffagricultural runoffrun-off
Rainfall, and the surface runoff which may result from rainfall, produces four main types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion.
It is the primary agent in soil erosion by water.

Intensive farming

industrial agricultureintensive agricultureintensive
Intensive agriculture, deforestation, roads, anthropogenic climate change and urban sprawl are amongst the most significant human activities in regard to their effect on stimulating erosion.
NPK fertilizers stimulated the first concerns about industrial agriculture, due to concerns that they came with serious side effects such as soil compaction, soil erosion, and declines in overall soil fertility, along with health concerns about toxic chemicals entering the food supply.

Erosion

erodederodingerode
However, there are many prevention and remediation practices that can curtail or limit erosion of vulnerable soils.
Rainfall, and the surface runoff which may result from rainfall, produces four main types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion.

Desertification

desertifiedexpansion of desertscombat and prevent desertification
In some cases, the eventual end result is desertification.
Windbreaks are made from trees and bushes and are used to reduce soil erosion and evapotranspiration.

Soil compaction (agriculture)

soil compactioncompaction
Soil compaction also affects the permeability of the soil to water, and hence the amount of water that flows away as runoff.
Together with soil erosion, it is regarded as the "costliest and most serious environmental problem caused by conventional agriculture."

Tillage

cultivationtillingcultivated
The tillage of agricultural lands, which breaks up soil into finer particles, is one of the primary factors.
Conservation tillage leaves at least 30% of crop residue on the soil surface, or at least 1,000 lb/ac (1,100 kg/ha) of small grain residue on the surface during the critical soil erosion period.

Agriculture

farmingagriculturalagriculturist
It is also a major source of land degradation, evaporation, desertification, harmful airborne dust, and crop damage—especially after being increased far above natural rates by human activities such as deforestation, urbanization, and agriculture.
Degradation can be deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, mineral depletion, or chemical degradation (acidification and salinization).

WEPP

Water Erosion Prediction Project erosion modelWater Erosion Prediction Project model
Other soil erosion models have largely (e.g. the Water Erosion Prediction Project model) or wholly (e.g. the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model ) abandoned usage of USLE elements.
The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model is a physically based erosion simulation model built on the fundamentals of hydrology, plant science, hydraulics, and erosion mechanics.

Universal Soil Loss Equation

Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation
The most commonly used model for predicting soil loss from water erosion is the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE).
The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely used mathematical model that describes soil erosion processes.

Crop rotation

fallowrotationthree-field system
Traditional planting methods, such as mixed-cropping (instead of monocropping) and crop rotation have also been shown to significantly reduce erosion rates.
It helps in reducing soil erosion and increases soil fertility and crop yield.

Biorhexistasy

rhexistasy
Biorhexistasy
The theory of biorhexistasy describes climatic conditions necessary for periods of soil formation (pedogenesis) separated by periods of soil erosion.

Grazing

grazegrazersgrazed
Heavy grazing reduces vegetative cover and causes severe soil compaction, both of which increase erosion rates.
Negative effects of grazing include increased soil erosion, adverse water quality impacts from increased runoff and loss of biodiversity.

Riparian zone

riparianriparian zonesriparian habitat
Riparian zone
The undisturbed soil, soil cover, and vegetation provide shade, plant litter, and woody material, and reduce the delivery of soil eroded from the harvested area.

Geomorphology

geomorphologicalgeomorphologistgeomorphic
Wind erosion is a major geomorphological force, especially in arid and semi-arid regions.
He inferred that the land was reshaped and formed by soil erosion of the mountains and by deposition of silt, after observing strange natural erosions of the Taihang Mountains and the Yandang Mountain near Wenzhou.

Agricultural productivity

crop productivityproductivitycrop production
On-site impacts include decreases in agricultural productivity and (on natural landscapes) ecological collapse, both because of loss of the nutrient-rich upper soil layers.

Natural landscape

desert landscapeslandscapesnative landscapes
On-site impacts include decreases in agricultural productivity and (on natural landscapes) ecological collapse, both because of loss of the nutrient-rich upper soil layers.

Ecological collapse

environmental collapserainforest collapseCarboniferous Rainforest Collapse
On-site impacts include decreases in agricultural productivity and (on natural landscapes) ecological collapse, both because of loss of the nutrient-rich upper soil layers.

Soil horizon

soil profilehorizonsoil horizons
On-site impacts include decreases in agricultural productivity and (on natural landscapes) ecological collapse, both because of loss of the nutrient-rich upper soil layers.

Sediment

sedimentssedimentarydregs
Off-site effects include sedimentation of waterways and eutrophication of water bodies, as well as sediment-related damage to roads and houses.

Eutrophication

eutrophiceutrophicatedeutrophied
Off-site effects include sedimentation of waterways and eutrophication of water bodies, as well as sediment-related damage to roads and houses.

Environmental issue

environmental issuesenvironmental impactenvironmental problems
Water and wind erosion are the two primary causes of land degradation; combined, they are responsible for about 84% of the global extent of degraded land, making excessive erosion one of the most significant environmental problems worldwide.

Road

roadsroad constructionroad building
Intensive agriculture, deforestation, roads, anthropogenic climate change and urban sprawl are amongst the most significant human activities in regard to their effect on stimulating erosion.