Soil fertility

fertilefertilityfertile soilsoil depletionfertility of the soilagricultural fertilityfertile landfertile soilsinfertileproductivity
Soil fertility refers to the ability of a soil to sustain agricultural plant growth, i.e. to provide plant habitat and result in sustained and consistent yields of high quality.wikipedia
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Plant nutrition

nutrientsplant nutrientsnutrient
The ability to supply essential plant nutrients and water in adequate amounts and proportions for plant growth and reproduction; and
However, if the soil is cropped it is necessary to artificially modify soil fertility through the addition of fertilizer to promote vigorous growth and increase or sustain yield.

Soil retrogression and degradation

soil degradationdegradationdegradation of soils
This is because soil erosion and other forms of soil degradation generally result in a decline in quality with respect to one or more of the aspects indicated above.
Soils naturally reach a state of high productivity, from which they naturally degrade as mineral nutrients are removed from the soil system.

Soil organic matter

organic matterorganicorganic matter in the soil
Topsoil with sufficient soil organic matter for healthy soil structure and soil moisture retention;
SOM increases soil fertility by providing cation exchange sites and acting as reserve of plant nutrients, especially nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S), along with micronutrients, which are slowly released upon SOM mineralization.

Soil

dirtsoilssoil moisture
Topsoil with sufficient soil organic matter for healthy soil structure and soil moisture retention;
As chemistry developed, it was applied to the investigation of soil fertility.

Soil management

manageablemanagement of soilssoil
In agriculture, depletion can be due to excessively intense cultivation and inadequate soil management.
Soil management is the application of operations, practices, and treatments to protect soil and enhance its performance (such as soil fertility or soil mechanics).

Cation-exchange capacity

cation exchange capacitybase saturationcation exchange
Nutrient cations, including potassium and many micronutrients, are held in relatively strong bonds with the negatively charged portions of the soil in a process known as cation exchange.
CEC affects many aspects of soil chemistry, and is used as a measure of soil fertility, as it indicates the capacity of the soil to retain several nutrients (e.g. K +, NH 4 +, Ca 2+ ) in plant-available form.

Sudan

🇸🇩SudaneseRepublic of the Sudan
In regions of dry climate like Sudan and the countries that make up the Sahara Desert, droughts and soil degradation is common.
The consequences have manifested themselves in the form of deforestation, soil desiccation, and the lowering of soil fertility and the water table.

Alkali soil

alkaline soilsalkalinealkaline soil
So plant roots can not penetrate deep into the soil for optimum growth in Alkali soils.
Soil fertility

Fertilizer

fertiliserfertilizersnitrogen fertilizer
Fertilizer
Management of soil fertility has been the preoccupation of farmers for thousands of years.

Arable land

farmlandarablearable farming
Arable land
Soil fertility

Terra preta

black earthTerra Preta de Indioanthropic soil conditions
Terra preta
Terra preta may be an important avenue of future carbon sequestration while reversing the current worldwide decline in soil fertility and associated desertification.

Agriculture

farmingagriculturalagriculturist
In lands used for agriculture and other human activities, maintenance of soil fertility typically requires the use of soil conservation practices.

Soil conservation

soilsoil protectionconservation
In lands used for agriculture and other human activities, maintenance of soil fertility typically requires the use of soil conservation practices.

Soil erosion

erosionErodedsoil erosion by water
This is because soil erosion and other forms of soil degradation generally result in a decline in quality with respect to one or more of the aspects indicated above.

Drainage

draineddraindrainage channel
Good internal drainage, allowing sufficient aeration for optimal root growth (although some plants, such as rice, tolerate waterlogging);

Soil structure

structureaggregatessoil aggregates
Topsoil with sufficient soil organic matter for healthy soil structure and soil moisture retention;

Soil pH

pHacidic soilacidic
Soil pH in the range 5.5 to 7.0 (suitable for most plants but some prefer or tolerate more acid or alkaline conditions);

Soil life

soil biologicalbiological activitysoil microbial
Presence of a range of microorganisms that support plant growth.

Bioavailability

bioavailableabsolute bioavailabilitybio-availability
Bioavailable phosphorus is the element in soil that is most often lacking.

Mineralization (soil science)

mineralizationmineralisationmineralized
As plant material and animal wastes are decomposed by micro-organisms, they release inorganic nutrients to the soil solution, a process referred to as mineralization.

Biomass

biomass power plantbio-massbiomass-fired
Like plants, many micro-organisms require or preferentially use inorganic forms of nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium and will compete with plants for these nutrients, tying up the nutrients in microbial biomass, a process often called immobilization.

Immobilization (soil science)

immobilizationimmobilisedsoil immobilization
Like plants, many micro-organisms require or preferentially use inorganic forms of nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium and will compete with plants for these nutrients, tying up the nutrients in microbial biomass, a process often called immobilization.

Peak phosphorus

peak phosphatephosphorus
Recently the term peak phosphorus has been coined, due to the limited occurrence of rock phosphate in the world.

Photosynthesis

photosyntheticphotosynthesizephotosynthesizing
Photosynthesis is the process whereby plants use light energy to drive chemical reactions which convert CO 2 into sugars.

New England Colonies

colonial New EnglandNew EnglandNew England colonists
For example, in Colonial New England, colonists made a number of decisions that depleted the soils, including: allowing herd animals to wander freely, not replenishing soils with manure, and a sequence of events that led to erosion.