Soil science

soil scientistsoil sciencessoil scientistsDepression storage capacitysoilSoilschemical properties of soildepressiondepression storagepedosphere
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.wikipedia
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Soil

soilsdirtsoil moisture
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
Soil science has two basic branches of study: edaphology and pedology.

Pedology

Pedology (soil study)pedologistpedological
Sometimes terms which refer to branches of soil science, such as pedology (formation, chemistry, morphology, and classification of soil) and edaphology (how soils interact with living things, especially plants), are used as if synonymous with soil science.
It is one of two main branches of soil science, the other being edaphology.

Edaphology

edaphicedaphic endemicsedaphic plant communities
Sometimes terms which refer to branches of soil science, such as pedology (formation, chemistry, morphology, and classification of soil) and edaphology (how soils interact with living things, especially plants), are used as if synonymous with soil science.
Edaphology (from Greek ἔδαφος, edaphos, "ground",-λογία, -logia) is one of two main divisions of soil science, the other being pedology.

Agronomy

agronomistarableagronomic
Indeed, engineers, agronomists, chemists, geologists, physical geographers, ecologists, biologists, microbiologists, silviculturists, sanitarians, archaeologists, and specialists in regional planning, all contribute to further knowledge of soils and the advancement of the soil sciences.
Agronomy has come to encompass work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology, and soil science.

Physical geography

physiographicphysiographyphysiographically
Indeed, engineers, agronomists, chemists, geologists, physical geographers, ecologists, biologists, microbiologists, silviculturists, sanitarians, archaeologists, and specialists in regional planning, all contribute to further knowledge of soils and the advancement of the soil sciences. This effort draws upon geomorphology, physical geography, and analysis of vegetation and land-use patterns.
Early studies in geomorphology are the foundation for pedology, one of two main branches of soil science.

Soil survey

soil mappingmappedmapping
Most empirical knowledge of soil in nature comes from soil survey efforts.
It applies the principles of soil science, and draws heavily from geomorphology, theories of soil formation, physical geography, and analysis of vegetation and land use patterns.

Soil type

Soil typessoilclay
Soil survey, or soil mapping, is the process of determining the soil types or other properties of the soil cover over a landscape, and mapping them for others to understand and use.
A soil type is a taxonomic unit in soil science.

Friedrich Albert Fallou

Frederic Fallou
Contemporaries Friedrich Albert Fallou, the German founder of modern soil science, and Vasily Dokuchaev, the Russian founder of modern soil science, are both credited with being among the first to identify soil as a resource whose distinctness and complexity deserved to be separated conceptually from geology and crop production and treated as a whole.
Friedrich Albert Fallou (1794–1877) was the German founder of modern soil science.

Earth science

Earth Sciencesgeosciencesgeoscience
Soil occupies the pedosphere, one of Earth's spheres that the geosciences use to organize the Earth conceptually.

Porosity

porousporepores
Contrary to popular belief, light soils do not weigh less than heavy soils on an air dry basis nor do they have more porosity.
Used in geology, hydrogeology, soil science, and building science, the porosity of a porous medium (such as rock or sediment) describes the fraction of void space in the material, where the void may contain, for example, air or water.

Vasily Dokuchaev

Vasily V. DokuchaevV. V. DokuchaevVasily Dokuchayev
Contemporaries Friedrich Albert Fallou, the German founder of modern soil science, and Vasily Dokuchaev, the Russian founder of modern soil science, are both credited with being among the first to identify soil as a resource whose distinctness and complexity deserved to be separated conceptually from geology and crop production and treated as a whole.
Vasily Vasilyevich Dokuchaev (March 1, 1846 in Milyukovo, Smolensk Governorate – November 8, 1903 in Saint Petersburg) was a Russian geologist and geographer who is credited with laying the foundations of soil science.

Pedro A. Sanchez

Pedro SanchezPedro Sanchezof
The concept of soil quality, however, has not been without its share of controversy and criticism, including critiques by Nobel Laureate Norman Borlaug and World Food Prize Winner Pedro Sanchez.
A native of Cuba, Sanchez received his BS, MS and PhD degrees in soil science from Cornell University, and joined the faculty of North Carolina State University in 1968.

Norman Borlaug

Norman E. BorlaugNorman Ernest BorlaugBorlaug
The concept of soil quality, however, has not been without its share of controversy and criticism, including critiques by Nobel Laureate Norman Borlaug and World Food Prize Winner Pedro Sanchez.
The Cooperative Wheat Research Production Program, a joint venture by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Mexican Ministry of Agriculture, involved research in genetics, plant breeding, plant pathology, entomology, agronomy, soil science, and cereal technology.

Forestry

loggingtimber tradeforester
Indeed, engineers, agronomists, chemists, geologists, physical geographers, ecologists, biologists, microbiologists, silviculturists, sanitarians, archaeologists, and specialists in regional planning, all contribute to further knowledge of soils and the advancement of the soil sciences.
Today, forestry education typically includes training in general biology, ecology, botany, genetics, soil science, climatology, hydrology, economics and forest management.

Pedotransfer function

pedotransfer functions
In soil science, pedotransfer functions (PTF) are predictive functions of certain soil properties using data from soil surveys.

Agricultural soil science

agricultural soilssoil regionssoil & agricultural sustainability
Agricultural soil science is a branch of soil science that deals with the study of edaphic conditions as they relate to the production of food and fiber.

Hydropedology

Hydropedology is an emerging field formed from the intertwining branches of soil science and hydrology.

Environmental soil science

Environmental soil science addresses both the fundamental and applied aspects of the field including: buffers and surface water quality, vadose zone functions, septic drain field site assessment and function, land treatment of wastewater, stormwater, erosion control, soil contamination with metals and pesticides, remediation of contaminated soils, restoration of wetlands, soil degradation, nutrient management, movement of viruses and bacteria in soils and waters, bioremediation, application of molecular biology and genetic engineering to development of soil microbes that can degrade hazardous pollutants, land use, global warming, acid rain, and the study of anthropogenic soils, such as terra preta.

Environmental science

Environmental Sciencesenvironmental scientistenvironmental
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanography, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography, and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.

Pedometric mapping

Pedometrics
Measurement in this case is restricted to mathematical and statistical methods as it relates to pedology, the branch of soil science that studies soil in its natural setting.

Infiltration (hydrology)

infiltrationinfiltrateinfiltration capacity
Depression storage capacity, along with infiltration capacity, is one of the main factors involved in Horton overland flow, whereby water volume surpasses both infiltration and depression storage capacity and begins to flow horizontally across land, possibly leading to flooding and soil erosion.
It is commonly used in both hydrology and soil sciences.

Horton overland flow

Horton flowoverland flow
Depression storage capacity, along with infiltration capacity, is one of the main factors involved in Horton overland flow, whereby water volume surpasses both infiltration and depression storage capacity and begins to flow horizontally across land, possibly leading to flooding and soil erosion.
In soil science, Horton overland flow describes the tendency of water to flow horizontally across land surfaces when rainfall has exceeded infiltration capacity and depression storage capacity.

Hydrogeology

hydrogeologicalhydrogeologistgeohydrology
The very shallow flow of water in the subsurface (the upper 3 m) is pertinent to the fields of soil science, agriculture and civil engineering, as well as to hydrogeology.

Soil biology

soil organismssoil biotasoil fauna
Both branches apply a combination of soil physics, soil chemistry, and soil biology.

Geomorphology

geomorphologicalgeomorphologistgeomorphic
This effort draws upon geomorphology, physical geography, and analysis of vegetation and land-use patterns.
Weathering is the chemical and physical disruption of earth materials in place on exposure to atmospheric or near surface agents, and is typically studied by soil scientists and environmental chemists, but is an essential component of geomorphology because it is what provides the material that can be moved in the first place.