Solder

lead-free soldersilver soldersolderedglass solderplumber's soldersoft soldersolderstin-lead solderhard solderlead-free alloys
Solder (, or in North America ) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.wikipedia
377 Related Articles

Alloy

alloysmetal alloyalloying
Solder (, or in North America ) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
Examples of alloys are steel, solder, brass, pewter, duralumin, bronze and amalgams.

Fusible alloy

fusiblelow-melting alloylow melt alloys/metals
Solder (, or in North America ) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
Sometimes the term "fusible alloy" is used to describe alloys with a melting point below 183 C. Fusible alloys in this sense are used for solder.

Soldering iron

Gas-powered soldering ironshot knifesoldered
For electrical and electronics work, solder wire is available in a range of thicknesses for hand-soldering (manual soldering is performed using a soldering iron or soldering gun), and with cores containing flux.
It supplies heat to melt solder so that it can flow into the joint between two workpieces.

Indium

InIn 2 111 In
Lead-free solders in commercial use may contain tin, copper, silver, bismuth, indium, zinc, antimony, and traces of other metals.
It is most notably used in the semiconductor industry, in low-melting-point metal alloys such as solders, in soft-metal high-vacuum seals, and in the production of transparent conductive coatings of indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass.

Tin-silver-copper

Tin-silver-copper (Sn-Ag-Cu, or "SAC") solders are used by two-thirds of Japanese manufacturers for reflow and wave soldering, and by about 75% of companies for hand soldering.
Tin-silver-copper (SnAgCu, also known as SAC), is a lead-free (Pb-free) alloy commonly used for electronic solder.

Lead

Pblead orelead mining
These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, plumbing, batteries, bullets and shot, weights, solders, pewters, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, and radiation shielding.

Plumbing

water pipepipewater pipes
Soft solder typically has a melting point range of 90 to 450 C, and is commonly used in electronics, plumbing, and sheet metal work.
Lead-tin alloy solder was commonly used to join copper pipes, but modern practice uses tin-antimony alloy solder instead in order to eliminate lead hazards.

Tin

SnGray tintinfoil
In modern times, tin is used in many alloys, most notably tin/lead soft solders, which are typically 60% or more tin, and in the manufacture of transparent, electrically conducting films of indium tin oxide in optoelectronic applications.

Soldering gun

For electrical and electronics work, solder wire is available in a range of thicknesses for hand-soldering (manual soldering is performed using a soldering iron or soldering gun), and with cores containing flux.
A soldering gun is an approximately pistol-shaped, electrically powered tool for soldering metals using tin-based solder to achieve a strong mechanical bond with good electrical contact.

Antimony

Sbantimonialantimonium
Since even small amounts of lead have been found detrimental to health, lead in plumbing solder was replaced by silver (food-grade applications) or antimony, with copper often added, and the proportion of tin was increased (see Lead-free solder.)
Alloys of lead and tin with antimony have improved properties for solders, bullets, and plain bearings.

Whisker (metallurgy)

whiskerstin whiskerstin whisker
Following the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS), the European Union banned the use of lead in most consumer electronic products from 2006 due to health problems associated with lead and the "high-tech trash" problem, leading to a re-focusing on the issue of whisker formation in lead-free solders.

Eutectic system

eutecticeutectoideutectic point
In specific proportions, some alloys can become eutectic — that is, the alloy's melting point is lower than that of either component.

Rosin

colophonycolophoniumwood rosin
The two principal types of flux are acid flux (sometimes called "active flux"), containing strong acids, used for metal mending and plumbing, and rosin flux (sometimes called "passive flux"), used in electronics.
Rosin is an ingredient in printing inks, photocopying and laser printing paper, varnishes, adhesives (glues), soap, paper sizing, soda, soldering fluxes, and sealing wax.

Safe Drinking Water Act

Drinking Water State Revolving FundContaminant Candidate ListSafe Drinking Water
In the United States, lead is prohibited in solder and flux in plumbing applications for drinking water use, per the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).

Copper

CuCu 2+ cupric
Since even small amounts of lead have been found detrimental to health, lead in plumbing solder was replaced by silver (food-grade applications) or antimony, with copper often added, and the proportion of tin was increased (see Lead-free solder.)
Some lead-free solders consist of tin alloyed with a small proportion of copper and other metals.

Desoldering

desolderdesoldering braidsolder sucker
Enameling solder has a high melting point, close to that of the material itself, to prevent the joint desoldering during firing in the enameling process.
In electronics, desoldering is the removal of solder and components from a circuit board for troubleshooting, repair, replacement, and salvage.

Zinc

ZnZn 2+ zinc alloy
Lead-free solders in commercial use may contain tin, copper, silver, bismuth, indium, zinc, antimony, and traces of other metals.
Other widely used zinc alloys include nickel silver, typewriter metal, soft and aluminium solder, and commercial bronze.

Brazing

brazedbrazehard soldering
Soldering performed using alloys with a melting point above 450 C is called "hard soldering", "silver soldering", or brazing.
Eutectic behavior is especially beneficial for solders.

Titanium

Tititanium oretitanian
When lead-free solder is used in wave soldering, a slightly modified solder pot may be desirable (e.g. titanium liners or impellers) to reduce maintenance cost due to increased tin-scavenging of high-tin solder.
Titanium cannot be soldered without first pre-plating it in a metal that is solderable.

Tin pest

its α allotrope
With the adoption of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS) regulations in Europe, and similar regulations elsewhere, traditional lead/tin solder alloys in electronic devices have been replaced by nearly pure tin, introducing tin pest and related problems such as tin whiskers.

Ames Laboratory

Ames National Laboratory
The ternary eutectic behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu and its application for electronics assembly was discovered (and patented) by a team of researchers from Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, and from Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque.

Bismuth

BiBi 3+ 83
Lead-free solders in commercial use may contain tin, copper, silver, bismuth, indium, zinc, antimony, and traces of other metals.
Many bismuth alloys have low melting points and are found in specialty applications such as solders.

Silversmith

silversmithingsilversmithssilver
In silversmithing or jewelry making, special hard solders are used that will pass assay.

Glass frit bonding

glass frit
Glass solders are used to join glasses to other glasses, ceramics, metals, semiconductors, mica, and other materials, in a process called glass frit bonding.
This technique utilizes low melting glass ("glass solder") and therefore provides various advantages including that viscosity of glass decreases with an increase of temperature.

Gold

Aunative goldgold dust
Lead-tin solders readily dissolve gold plating and form brittle intermetallics.
Gold solder is used for joining the components of gold jewelry by high-temperature hard soldering or brazing.