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Sebaceous gland

sebumsebaceous glandssebaceous
Like those of the palm, the sweat pores of the sole lack sebaceous glands.
In humans, they occur in the greatest number on the face and scalp, but also on all parts of the skin except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.

Ball (foot)

ball of the footballballs
The subcutaneous tissue in the sole has adapted to deal with the high local compressive forces on the heel and the ball (between the toes and the arch) by developing a system of "pressure chambers."
The ball of the foot is the padded portion of the sole between the toes and the arch, underneath the heads of the metatarsal bones.

Heel

heelsRudo
The subcutaneous tissue in the sole has adapted to deal with the high local compressive forces on the heel and the ball (between the toes and the arch) by developing a system of "pressure chambers."
To distribute the compressive forces exerted on the heel during gait, and especially the stance phase when the heel contacts the ground, the sole of the foot is covered by a layer of subcutaneous connective tissue up to 2 cm thick (under the heel).

Flat feet

pes planusflat footflat-footed
The arches might collapse later in life, resulting in flat feet.
Flat feet (also called pes planus or fallen arches) is a postural deformity in which the arches of the foot collapse, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground.

Hair

glabrousglabrescenthuman hair
The glabrous skin on the sole of the foot lacks the hair and pigmentation found elsewhere on the body, and it has a high concentration of sweat pores.
On the human body, glabrous skin is found on the ventral portion of the fingers, palms, soles of feet and lips, which are all parts of the body most closely associated with interacting with the world around us, as are the labia minora and glans penis.

Flexor digitorum brevis muscle

flexor digitorum brevis
In the first layer, the flexor digitorum brevis is the large central muscle located immediately below the plantar aponeurosis.
Its deep surface is separated from the lateral plantar vessels and nerves by a thin layer of fascia.

Anatomical terms of location

ventraldorsalanterior
In humans the sole of the foot is anatomically referred to as the plantar aspect.
Volar can also be used to refer to the underside of the palm or sole, which are themselves also sometimes used to describe location as palmar and plantar.

Foot

feetinstepft
The sole is the bottom of the foot.
Sole (foot)

Plantar reflex

Babinski reflexBabinski's signBabinski-like responses
Medically, the soles are the site of the plantar reflex, the testing of which can be painful due to the sole's sensitivity.
The [[Human anatomical terms#Near or away from the vertical longitudinal center of the body|lateral]] side of the sole of the foot is rubbed with a blunt instrument or device so as not to cause pain, discomfort, or injury to the skin; the instrument is run from the heel along a curve to the toes (metatarsal pads).

Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle (foot)

Flexor digiti minimi brevisflexor digiti minimiFlexor digiti minimi brevis muscle
The considerably smaller flexor digiti minimi brevis on the lateral side can be mistaken for one of the interossei.

Foot whipping

bastinadofalakabastinadoed
The beating of the soles of a person's bare feet (foot whipping or bastinado) has served as a traditional means of corporal punishment and discipline in various civilizations to this day and is also used as a method of torture.
The uncovered soles of the feet need to be placed in an exposed position.

Abductor hallucis muscle

abductor hallucis
It flexes the second to fifth toes and is flanked by abductor hallucis and abductor digiti minimi.
Sole of the foot

Abductor digiti minimi muscle of foot

abductor digiti minimiAbductor digiti quintiabductor
It flexes the second to fifth toes and is flanked by abductor hallucis and abductor digiti minimi.

Lateral plantar nerve

Lateral plantarnerves
The superficial and deep branches of the lateral plantar nerve from the tibial nerve provide sensory innervation to the skin of the lateral side of the sole, to the fifth and half the fourth toes, and the nail bed of these toes.

Medial plantar nerve

Medial plantarmedial
The plantar digital nerves from the medial plantar nerve provide sensory innervation to the skin of the plantar aspect of the toes, except the medial part of the big toe and the lateral part of the little toe and the motor innervation of the first lumbrical.

Melanin

eumelaninpheomelaninphaeomelanin
The glabrous skin on the sole of the foot lacks the hair and pigmentation found elsewhere on the body, and it has a high concentration of sweat pores.

Sweat gland

sweat glandsporesweat
The glabrous skin on the sole of the foot lacks the hair and pigmentation found elsewhere on the body, and it has a high concentration of sweat pores.

Human embryonic development

human embryoembryogenesisdevelopment
The sole contains the thickest layers of skin on the body due to the weight that is continually placed on it. It is crossed by a set of creases that form during the early stages of embryonic development.

Hand

handspalmpalms
Like those of the palm, the sweat pores of the sole lack sebaceous glands.

Subcutaneous tissue

subcutaneoussubcutaneous fathypodermis
The subcutaneous tissue in the sole has adapted to deal with the high local compressive forces on the heel and the ball (between the toes and the arch) by developing a system of "pressure chambers."

Arches of the foot

archarch of the footarches
The subcutaneous tissue in the sole has adapted to deal with the high local compressive forces on the heel and the ball (between the toes and the arch) by developing a system of "pressure chambers."

Collagen

procollagencollagenscollagen fibers
Each chamber is composed of internal fibrofatty tissue covered by external collagen connective tissue.

Septum

septaseptateseptal
The septa (internal walls) of these chambers are permeated by numerous blood vessels, making the sole one of the most vascularized, or blood-enriched, regions in the human body.