Sole (foot)

Soles of a human's feet
Deep anatomy of the sole
Cutaneous innervation of the sole of the foot

Bottom of the foot.

- Sole (foot)
Soles of a human's feet

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A human heel

Heel

Prominence at the posterior end of the foot.

Prominence at the posterior end of the foot.

A human heel
Sagittal section through the foot
From above

To distribute the compressive forces exerted on the heel during gait, and especially the stance phase when the heel contacts the ground, the sole of the foot is covered by a layer of subcutaneous connective tissue up to 2 cm thick (under the heel).

Flat feet

Foot with a typical arch
Flat feet of a child are usually expected to develop into high or proper arches, as shown by feet of the mother.
A woman in her thirties dorsiflexes, showing an absence of arches, over-pronated navicular and hallux valgus in the toes typically associated with flat feet.
Flatfoot in a 55-year-old female with ankle and knee arthritis.
Acquired Flat foot deformity with clinical soft tissue swelling.
Lateral X-ray of a flat foot with C-sign, which is a bony bridge between the talar dome and sustentaculum tali, in combination with a prominent inferior border of the sustentaculum tali. This represents a talocalcaneal coalition, which is an abnormal connection between the talus and calcaneus, and is thought to cause the flat foot deformity in this case.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Zhou|first1=Binghua|last2=Tang|first2=Kanglai|last3=Hardy|first3=Mark|s2cid=16663986|title=Talocalcaneal coalition combined with flatfoot in children: diagnosis and treatment: a review|journal=Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research|volume=9|issue=1|year=2014|page=129|issn=1749-799X|doi=10.1186/s13018-014-0129-9|pmid=25499625|pmc=4276075}} (CC BY 4.0)</ref>
Dorsoplantar projectional radiograph of the foot showing the measurement of the talonavicular coverage angle.
Weight-bearing lateral X-ray showing the measurement of calcaneal pitch, which is an angle of the calcaneus and the inferior aspect of the foot, with different sources giving different reference points.<ref>Detailed explanations and references are located in the Calcaneal pitch article.</ref> A calcaneal pitch of less than 17° or 18° indicates flat feet.<ref name="uw-planus" />
Same lateral X-ray showing the measurement of Meary's angle, which is the angle between the long axis of the talus and first metatarsal bone.<ref name="uw-planus" /> An angle greater than 4° convex downward is considered a flat foot, 15° - 30° moderate flat foot, and greater than 30° severe flat foot.<ref name="uw-planus" />

Flat feet (also called pes planus or fallen arches) is a postural deformity in which the arches of the foot collapse, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground.

A focus on the ball of a person's foot

Ball (foot)

A focus on the ball of a person's foot

The ball of the foot is the padded portion of the sole between the toes and the arch, underneath the heads of the metatarsal bones.

Schematic view of hair follicle and sebaceous gland

Sebaceous gland

Microscopic exocrine gland in the skin that opens into a hair follicle to secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, which lubricates the hair and skin of mammals.

Microscopic exocrine gland in the skin that opens into a hair follicle to secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, which lubricates the hair and skin of mammals.

Schematic view of hair follicle and sebaceous gland
Conditions of sebaceous glands.
Base of pilosebaceous unit
Insertion of sebaceous glands into hair shaft
Sagittal section through the upper eyelid.
A hair follicle with associated structures
Scalp cross section showing hair follicle with sebaceous glands.

In humans, sebaceous glands occur in the greatest number on the face and scalp, but also on all parts of the skin except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.

Because of differences in the way humans and other animals are structured, different terms are used according to the neuraxis and whether an animal is a vertebrate or invertebrate.

Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location are used to unambiguously describe the anatomy of animals, including humans.

Standard anatomical terms of location are used to unambiguously describe the anatomy of animals, including humans.

Because of differences in the way humans and other animals are structured, different terms are used according to the neuraxis and whether an animal is a vertebrate or invertebrate.
A male and female human in the standard anatomical position
Anatomical terms can be combined to be more specific. This is a dorsolateral view of the frog Mantophryne insignis.
Anatomical planes in a human
Organisms where the ends of the long axis are distinct. (Paramecium caudatum, above, and Stentor roeselii, below.)
Terms can be modified with prefixes and suffixes. In this image showing the jellyfish species Chrysaora, the prefix 'ab-', is used to indicate something that is 'away from' the mouth, for example the aboral. Other terms are combined to indicate axes, such as proximodistal axis.
Anatomical directional reference
In the human skull, the terms rostral and caudal are adapted to the curved neuraxis of Hominidae, rostrocaudal meaning the region on C shape connecting rostral and caudal regions.
Anatomical terms used to describe a human hand
Asymmetrical and spherical body shapes. (a) An organism with an asymmetrical, amoeboid, body plan (Amoeba proteus – an amoeba). (b) An organism with a spherical body plan (Actinophrys sol – a heliozoan).
Four individuals of Phaeodactylum tricornutum, a diatom with a fixed elongated shape.
A cluster of Euplectella aspergillum sponges (Venus flower baskets), showing the apical-basal axes.
Anatomical axes in a human, similar for other orthograde bipedal vertebrates
Anatomical terms of location in a fish.
Spheroid or near-spheroid organs such as testes may be measured by "long" and "short" axis.<ref>{{cite book|title=Introduction to Vascular Ultrasonography|first1=John |last1=Pellerito |first2=Joseph F. |last2=Polak|edition=6th|publisher=Elsevier Health Sciences|year=2012|isbn=978-1-4557-3766-6 |page=559}}</ref>
Anatomical terms of location in a dog
Anatomical terms of location in a kangaroo
Anatomical terms of location in a horse.
Aurelia aurita, another species of jellyfish, showing multiple radial and medio-peripheral axes
The sea star Porania pulvillus, aboral and oral surfaces
Aspects of spider anatomy; This aspect shows the mainly prolateral surface of the anterior femora, plus the typical horizontal eye pattern of the Sparassidae
Typical arrangement of eyes in the Lycosidae, with PME being the largest
In the Salticidae the AME are the largest

In humans, volar can also be used synonymously with palmar to refer to the underside of the palm, but plantar is used exclusively to describe the sole.

Cross section of a hair strand

Hair

Protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.

Protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.

Cross section of a hair strand
Hair follicle of Felidae.
Section of skin, showing the epidermis and dermis; a hair in its follicle; the Arrector pili muscle; sebaceous glands.
A woman with dark blonde hair. The basal color appears brown due to higher levels of brownish eumelanin.
Hair type 4c
Orange American shorthair cat.
Polar bears use their fur for warmth and while their skin is black, their transparent fur appears white and provides camouflage while hunting and serves as protection by hiding cubs in the snow.
Eyelashes and eyebrows help to protect the eyes from dust, dirt, and sweat.
Naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) in a zoo.
The soft, fine hair found on many nonhuman mammals is typically called fur.
Yellow curly hair and scalp from body which had long black wig over hair. Parts of wig plait remains. From Egypt, Gurob, probably tomb 23. 18th–19th Dynasty. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
Man with curly hair (David Luiz)
Global hair texture map
Straight black hair
Many razors have multiple blades purportedly to ensure a close shave. While shaving initially will leave skin feeling smooth and hair free, new hair growth can appear a few hours after hair removal.
Portrait of a Woman, Alessandro Allori (1535–1607; Uffizi Gallery): a plucked hairline gives a fashionably "noble brow"

On the human body, glabrous skin is found on the ventral portion of the fingers, palms, soles of feet and lips, which are all parts of the body most closely associated with interacting with the world around us, as are the labia minora and glans penis.

Bastinado demonstration using a cane

Foot whipping

Method of inflicting pain and humiliation by administering a beating on the soles of a person's bare feet.

Method of inflicting pain and humiliation by administering a beating on the soles of a person's bare feet.

Bastinado demonstration using a cane
Foot whipping in a Syrian prison; museum exhibit
Middle Eastern falaka using a plank; Iran, early 20th century
Visible welts typically sustained after bastinado using a thin rod for beating

The receiving person is forced to be barefoot and soles of the feet are placed in an exposed position.

Captured Viet Cong soldier, blindfolded and tied in a stress position by American forces during the Vietnam War, 1967

Torture

Deliberate infliction of severe pain or suffering on a person for reasons such as punishment, extracting a confession, interrogation for information, or intimidating third parties.

Deliberate infliction of severe pain or suffering on a person for reasons such as punishment, extracting a confession, interrogation for information, or intimidating third parties.

Captured Viet Cong soldier, blindfolded and tied in a stress position by American forces during the Vietnam War, 1967
Two Elamite chiefs flayed alive after the Battle of Ulai, Assyrian relief
"The custody of a criminal does not require torture" by Francisco Goya, c. 1812
Torture by the police is common in India.
Tear gas used during the 2019–2020 Hong Kong protests. Use of tear gas on protestors is sometimes considered a form of torture.
The mutilated body of a man who was dismembered during the Boxer Rebellion
Two United States soldiers and one South Vietnamese soldier waterboard a captured North Vietnamese prisoner of war near Da Nang, 1968.
Ali Shallal al-Qaisi being tortured by United States forces at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq.
Norwegian resistance fighter Lauritz Sand recovering after his release from the Gestapo, May 1945
Proposed United States poster, 1942 or 1943
Parties to the Convention against Torture in dark green, states that have signed the treaty in yellow, and others in gray
The Torture Never Again Monument in Brazil, by sculptor Demétrio Albuquerque, features the body of a naked man in the position of the pau de arara.

They may be either unsystematic or focused on a specific part of the body, as in falanga (the soles of the feet), repeated strikes against both ears, or shaking the detainee so that their head moves back and forth.

The reflex occurs upon stroking of the sole of the foot with a blunt object such as a pen. If the reflex occurs in adults as illustrated at bottom it may be due to nerve damage or disease.

Plantar reflex

Reflex elicited when the sole of the foot is stimulated with a blunt instrument.

Reflex elicited when the sole of the foot is stimulated with a blunt instrument.

The reflex occurs upon stroking of the sole of the foot with a blunt object such as a pen. If the reflex occurs in adults as illustrated at bottom it may be due to nerve damage or disease.
Pathological Babinski's sign in adult
Babinski's sign in a healthy newborn

The lateral side of the sole of the foot is rubbed with a blunt instrument or device so as not to cause pain, discomfort, or injury to the skin; the instrument is run from the heel along a curve to the toes (metatarsal pads).

Muscles of the sole of the foot. First layer. (Flexor digitorum brevis visible at center.)

Flexor digitorum brevis muscle

Muscle which lies in the middle of the sole of the foot, immediately above the central part of the plantar aponeurosis, with which it is firmly united.

Muscle which lies in the middle of the sole of the foot, immediately above the central part of the plantar aponeurosis, with which it is firmly united.

Muscles of the sole of the foot. First layer. (Flexor digitorum brevis visible at center.)
Bones of the right foot. Plantar surface.
Coronal section through right talocrural and talocalcaneal joints.
The bottom-most or first layer of muscles in the human foot include the flexor digitorum brevis.

Its deep surface is separated from the lateral plantar vessels and nerves by a thin layer of fascia.