Solid

solidsssolid statesolid-statesolid mattersolid phasematerial bodymicroscopic structuresolid surfacessolidification point
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).wikipedia
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State of matter

states of matterstatephysical state
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.

Gas

gasesgaseousgaseous state
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

Liquid

liquidsliquid phaseliquid state
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
As such, it is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, gas, and plasma), and is the only state with a definite volume but no fixed shape.

Ice

water iceicyglacier ice
The atoms in a solid are tightly bound to each other, either in a regular geometric lattice (crystalline solids, which include metals and ordinary ice) or irregularly (an amorphous solid such as common window glass), and are typically low in energy.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.

Condensed matter physics

condensed matterCondensed matter theorycondensed-matter physics
The branch of physics that deals with solids is called solid-state physics, and is the main branch of condensed matter physics (which also includes liquids).
The most familiar examples of condensed phases are solids and liquids, which arise from the electromagnetic forces between atoms.

Materials science

material sciencematerials engineeringmaterials scientist
Materials science is primarily concerned with the physical and chemical properties of solids.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering, is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

Solid-state physics

Solid State Physicssolid-statesolid state
The branch of physics that deals with solids is called solid-state physics, and is the main branch of condensed matter physics (which also includes liquids).
Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.

Single crystal

single-crystalsingle crystalsmonocrystalline
In some cases, the regular ordering can continue unbroken over a large scale, for example diamonds, where each diamond is a single crystal.
A single crystal or monocrystalline solid is a material in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample, with no grain boundaries.

Plasma (physics)

plasmaplasma physicsplasmas
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
The plasma state can be contrasted with the other states: solid, liquid, and gas.

Salt (chemistry)

saltsaltspotassium salt
Minerals range in composition from pure elements and simple salts to very complex silicates with thousands of known forms.
In chemistry, a salt is a solid chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of cations and anions.

Alloy

alloysmetal alloyalloying
Mixtures of two or more elements in which the major component is a metal are known as alloys.
Although the elements of an alloy usually must be soluble in the liquid state, they may not always be soluble in the solid state.

Sol–gel process

sol-gelsol-gel processsol gel
Recent nanoscale (e.g. sol-gel) technology has, however, made possible the production of polycrystalline transparent ceramics such as transparent alumina and alumina compounds for such applications as high-power lasers.
In this chemical procedure, a "sol" (a colloidal solution) is formed that then gradually evolves towards the formation of a gel-like diphasic system containing both a liquid phase and solid phase whose morphologies range from discrete particles to continuous polymer networks.

Crystal

crystallinecrystalscrystalline solid
The atoms in a solid are tightly bound to each other, either in a regular geometric lattice (crystalline solids, which include metals and ordinary ice) or irregularly (an amorphous solid such as common window glass), and are typically low in energy.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

Ceramic

ceramicsceramic materialsceramicist
Almost all common metals, and many ceramics, are polycrystalline.
A ceramic ( —, "potter's", from κέραμος —, "potter's clay") is a solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
Minerals range in composition from pure elements and simple salts to very complex silicates with thousands of known forms.
Another commonly used basic distinction among the elements is their state of matter (phase), whether solid, liquid, or gas, at a selected standard temperature and pressure (STP).

Amorphous solid

amorphousamorphous solidsamorphous materials
The atoms in a solid are tightly bound to each other, either in a regular geometric lattice (crystalline solids, which include metals and ordinary ice) or irregularly (an amorphous solid such as common window glass), and are typically low in energy.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.

Melting

moltenmeltmelted
In this case, the extreme and immediate heat of the lightning (~2500 °C) creates hollow, branching rootlike structures called fulgurite via fusion.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.

Thermal expansion

coefficient of thermal expansionthermal expansion coefficientexpansion
The negative coefficient of thermal expansion of the crystalline ceramic phase can be balanced with the positive coefficient of the glassy phase.
In the special case of solid materials, external ambient pressure does not usually appreciably affect the size of an object and so it is not usually necessary to consider the effect of pressure changes.

Electronic band structure

band structureband theoryenergy band
In a metallic conductor, current is carried by the flow of electrons", but in semiconductors, current can be carried either by electrons or by the positively charged "holes" in the electronic band structure of the material. Common semiconductor materials include silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide.
In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).

Calcium

CaCa 2+ calcium ions
The largest group of minerals by far is the silicates (most rocks are ≥95% silicates), which are composed largely of silicon and oxygen, with the addition of ions of aluminium, magnesium, iron, calcium and other metals.
: + 2 → (s) + +

Solid mechanics

theory of elasticitysolidelasticity
Solid mechanics is the study of the behavior of solid matter under external actions such as external forces and temperature changes.
Solid mechanics, also known as mechanics of solids, is the branch of continuum mechanics that studies the behavior of solid materials, especially their motion and deformation under the action of forces, temperature changes, phase changes, and other external or internal agents.

Stress (mechanics)

stressstressestensile stress
For example, when a solid vertical bar is supporting an overhead weight, each particle in the bar pushes on the particles immediately below it.

Young's modulus

Young’s modulusmodulustensile modulus
Young's modulus, or the Young modulus, is a mechanical property that measures the stiffness of a solid material.

Phonon

phononslattice vibrationoptical phonon
The spectrum of lattice vibrations in a crystalline or glassy network provides the foundation for the kinetic theory of solids.
In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, specifically in solids and some liquids.

Polymer

polymershomopolymerpolymeric
Examples of organic solids include wood, paraffin wax, naphthalene and a wide variety of polymers and plastics.
In the solid state, the respective conformations of the molecules are frozen.