Solid-propellant rocket

solid-fuel rocketSolidsolid rocketsolid rocket motorsolid-fuelsolid fuel rocketsolid fuelsolid-fueledsolid propellantsolid-fuelled
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).wikipedia
700 Related Articles

Rocket

rocketsrocketryrocket scientist
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).
The stored propellant can be a simple pressurized gas or a single liquid fuel that disassociates in the presence of a catalyst (monopropellants), two liquids that spontaneously react on contact (hypergolic propellants), two liquids that must be ignited to react, a solid combination of fuel with oxidizer (solid fuel), or solid fuel with liquid oxidizer (hybrid propellant system).

Liquid-propellant rocket

liquidliquid-fuel rocketbipropellant
All rockets used some form of solid or powdered propellant up until the 20th century, when liquid-propellant rockets offered more efficient and controllable alternatives.
Liquid propellants are also used in hybrid rockets, with some of the advantages of a solid rocket.

Rocket engine

rocket motorrocketthrusters
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). A simple solid rocket motor consists of a casing, nozzle, grain (propellant charge), and igniter.
Solid rocket propellants are prepared as a mixture of fuel and oxidising components called 'grain' and the propellant storage casing effectively becomes the combustion chamber.

Pyrotechnic initiator

igniterinitiatorpyrotechnic igniter
A simple solid rocket motor consists of a casing, nozzle, grain (propellant charge), and igniter.
A pyrotechnic initiator (also initiator or igniter) is a device containing a pyrotechnic composition used primarily to ignite other, more difficult-to-ignite materials, e.g. thermites, gas generators, and solid-fuel rockets.

Pulsed rocket motor

Pulsed Rocket MotorsPulsed
Also, pulsed rocket motors that burn in segments and that can be ignited upon command are available.
A pulsed rocket motor is typically defined as a multiple pulse solid-fuel rocket motor.

Jack Parsons (rocket engineer)

Jack ParsonsJohn Whiteside ParsonsJohn "Jack" Whiteside Parsons
Modern castable composite solid rocket motors were invented by the American aerospace engineer Jack Parsons at Caltech in 1942 when he replaced double base propellant with roofing asphalt and potassium perchlorate.
He invented the first rocket engine to use a castable, composite rocket propellant, and pioneered the advancement of both liquid-fuel and solid-fuel rockets.

Rocket propellant

rocket fuelpropellantpropellants
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).
A comparison of the highest specific impulses achieved with the various solid and liquid propellant combinations used in current launch vehicles is given in the article on solid-fuel rockets.

Missile

guided missilemissilesguided missiles
Since solid-fuel rockets can remain in storage for a long time without much propellant degradation, and the fact that they almost always launch reliably, they have been frequently used in military applications such as missiles.
Rockets are generally of the solid propellant type for ease of maintenance and fast deployment, although some larger ballistic missiles use liquid-propellant rockets.

Fuel

fuelsenergy-richFuel type
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).
Solid-fuel rocket technology also uses solid fuel (see solid propellants).

LGM-30 Minuteman

MinutemanMinuteman IIIMinuteman missile
An early Minuteman first stage used a single motor with four gimballed nozzles to provide pitch, yaw, and roll control.
Development of the Minuteman began in the mid-1950s, when basic research indicated that a solid fuel rocket motor could stand ready to launch for long periods of time, in contrast to liquid-fueled rockets that required fueling before launch and so might be destroyed in a surprise attack.

Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant

APCPcomposite propellantammonium perchlorate composite
A typical, well-designed ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) first-stage motor may have a vacuum specific impulse (Isp) as high as 285.6 isp (Titan IVB SRMU).
Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern solid-propellant rocket used in rocket vehicles.

Taylor–Culick flow

The solid grain mass burns in a predictable fashion to produce exhaust gases, the flow of which is described by Taylor–Culick flow.
The flow is named after Geoffrey Ingram Taylor and F. E. C. Culick, since Taylor showed first in 1956 that the flow inside such a configuration is inviscid and rotational and later in 1966, Culick found a self-similar solution to the problem applied to solid-propellant rocket combustion.

BATES

BATES is an acronym for BAllistic Test and Evaluation System, which is a standardized system for measuring solid rocket propellant performance designed and developed by the United States Air Force Research Laboratory in 1959 through the early 1960s, used for almost forty years thereafter, and again beginning in 2010.

Potassium perchlorate

KClO 4 perchloratePerchloracap
Modern castable composite solid rocket motors were invented by the American aerospace engineer Jack Parsons at Caltech in 1942 when he replaced double base propellant with roofing asphalt and potassium perchlorate.
It has been used as a solid rocket propellant, although in that application it has mostly been replaced by the higher performance ammonium perchlorate.

Propellant

solid propellantpropellantssolid-propellant
All rockets used some form of solid or powdered propellant up until the 20th century, when liquid-propellant rockets offered more efficient and controllable alternatives. A simple solid rocket motor consists of a casing, nozzle, grain (propellant charge), and igniter.
Solid propellants are used in forms called grains.

Space Shuttle

Shuttlespace shuttlesSpace Shuttle Program
For this reason, solids have been used as initial stages in rockets (for example the Space Shuttle), while reserving high specific impulse engines, especially less massive hydrogen-fueled engines, for higher stages.
NASA and the Air Force elected to use solid-propellant boosters because of the lower costs and the ease of refurbishing them for reuse after they landed in the ocean.

Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster

solid rocket boosterssolid rocket boosterSRBs
Steel was used for the space shuttle boosters.
The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) were the first solid-propellant rocket to be used for primary propulsion on a vehicle used for human spaceflight and provided the majority of the Space Shuttle's thrust during the first two minutes of flight.

Oxide

oxidesmetal oxideO
The addition of metal fuels (such as aluminium) can increase the performance (around 250 s), though metal oxide nucleation in the exhaust can turn the smoke opaque.
Consequently, they are often used in solid-fuel rockets.

Titan (rocket family)

TitanTitan IIITitan missile
For example, the Titan IIIC solid boosters injected nitrogen tetroxide for LITV; the tanks can be seen on the sides of the rocket between the main center stage and the boosters.
arsenal by 50 MX "Peacekeeper" solid-fuel rocket missiles in the mid-1980s, the last Titan II silo was

Sounding rocket

sounding rocketsrocketsondemeteorological rocket
The basic elements of a sounding rocket are a solid-fuel rocket motor and a science payload.

De Laval nozzle

convergent-divergent nozzlenozzlede Laval
A simple solid rocket motor consists of a casing, nozzle, grain (propellant charge), and igniter.

Ammonium dinitramide

ADNDinitramide
Ammonium dinitramide, NH 4 N(NO 2 ) 2, is being considered as a 1-to-1 chlorine-free substitute for ammonium perchlorate in composite propellants.
It makes an excellent solid rocket oxidizer with a slightly higher specific impulse than ammonium perchlorate and more importantly, does not leave hydrogen chloride fumes.

Fire arrow

fire arrowsChinese Fire ArrowFlaming Arrows
Illustrations and descriptions in the 14th century Chinese military treatise Huolongjing by the Ming dynasty military writer and philosopher Jiao Yu confirm that the Chinese in 1232 used proto solid propellant rockets then known as "fire arrows" to drive back the Mongols during the Siege of Kaifeng.
The dating of the appearance of the gunpowder propelled fire arrow, otherwise known as a rocket, more specifically a solid-propellant rocket, is disputed.

Star 48

Star 48BStar 48VStar-48V
Star 48 is a type of solid rocket motor used by many space propulsion and launch vehicle stages.

Throttle

throttle bodyacceleratorthrottle bodies
More advanced solid rocket motors can not only be throttled but also be extinguished and then re-ignited by controlling the nozzle geometry or through the use of vent ports.
This is not always a requirement; in fact, the thrust of a solid-fuel rocket is not controllable after ignition.