Solubility

solubleinsolublewater-solublesaturated solutionsolubilitieswater solubledissolvesolubilisationdissolvedDissolved gas
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.wikipedia
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Solid solution

exsolutionsolid-solutionexsolved
One may also speak of solid solution, but rarely of solution in a gas (see vapor–liquid equilibrium instead).
A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent.

Solvent

solventsorganic solventorganic solvents
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
This is opposed to the situation when the compounds are insoluble like sand in water.

Supersaturation

supersaturatedsupersaturateoversaturated
Under certain conditions, the equilibrium solubility can be exceeded to give a so-called supersaturated solution, which is metastable.
One of the easiest ways to do this relies on the temperature dependence of solubility.

Precipitation (chemistry)

precipitateprecipitationprecipitates
Solubility occurs under dynamic equilibrium, which means that solubility results from the simultaneous and opposing processes of dissolution and phase joining (e.g. precipitation of solids).
Precipitation may occur if the concentration of a compound exceeds its solubility (such as when mixing solvents or changing their temperature).

Silver chloride

AgClsilver(I) chlorideI
The extent of solubility ranges widely, from infinitely soluble (without limit) (miscible ) such as ethanol in water, to poorly soluble, such as silver chloride in water.
This white crystalline solid is well known for its low solubility in water (this behavior being reminiscent of the chlorides of Tl + and Pb 2+ ).

Solvation

dissolutiondissolveddissolve
Solubility occurs under dynamic equilibrium, which means that solubility results from the simultaneous and opposing processes of dissolution and phase joining (e.g. precipitation of solids).
Solvation is, in concept, distinct from solubility.

Common-ion effect

common ion effectno ion in commonsparingly soluble
Solubility will also depend on the excess or deficiency of a common ion in the solution, a phenomenon known as the common-ion effect.
The effect is commonly seen as an effect on the solubility of salts and other weak electrolytes.

Ionic strength

ionic balanceionic concentrations
To a lesser extent, solubility will depend on the ionic strength of solutions.
Ionic compounds, when dissolved in water, dissociate into ions.

Calcium hydroxide

slaked limelimehydrated lime
This is also the case for calcium hydroxide (portlandite), whose solubility at 70 °C is about half of its value at 25 °C.
Limewater is the common name for a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide.

Phase (matter)

phasephasesgas phase
Solubility is defined for specific phases.
Phases may also be differentiated based on solubility as in polar (hydrophilic) or non-polar (hydrophobic).

Calcium sulfate

calcium sulphateCaSO 4 Drierite
A few, such as calcium sulfate (gypsum) and cerium(III) sulfate, become less soluble in water as temperature increases. For example, precipitation fouling of oil fields and wells by calcium sulfate (which decreases its solubility with decreasing pressure) can result in decreased productivity with time.
It is also convenient that calcium sulfate is poorly soluble in water and does not readily dissolve in contact with water after its solidification.

Solution

solutesolutessolutions
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
The ability of one compound to dissolve in another compound is called solubility.

Chemical reaction

reactionchemical reactionsreactions
For example, zinc dissolves (with effervescence) in hydrochloric acid as a result of a chemical reaction releasing hydrogen gas in a displacement reaction.
It usually takes place when the concentration of dissolved ions exceeds the solubility limit and forms an insoluble salt.

Fouling

scalescalingfouled
For example, precipitation fouling of oil fields and wells by calcium sulfate (which decreases its solubility with decreasing pressure) can result in decreased productivity with time.
In general, the dependence of the salt solubility on temperature or presence of evaporation will often be the driving force for precipitation fouling.

Polymorphism (materials science)

polymorphpolymorphspolymorphism
For example, the solubility of aragonite and calcite in water are expected to differ, even though they are both polymorphs of calcium carbonate and have the same chemical formula.

Sieverts's law

Sieverts' law
Sieverts' law shows a case when this assumption does not hold.
Sieverts' law, in physical metallurgy and in chemistry, is a rule to predict the solubility of gases in metals.

Recrystallization (chemistry)

recrystallizationrecrystallizedrecrystallisation
The technique of recrystallization, used for purification of solids, depends on a solute's different solubilities in hot and cold solvent.
As the solution cools the solubility of compounds in solution drops.

Ostwald ripening

coarseningprecipitate aging
For example, they provide the driving force for precipitate aging (the crystal size spontaneously increasing with time).

Chemical substance

chemicalchemicalssubstance
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Iron(II) sulfide has its own distinct properties such as melting point and solubility, and the two elements cannot be separated using normal mechanical processes; a magnet will be unable to recover the iron, since there is no metallic iron present in the compound.

Carbon dioxide

CO 2 CO2carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
The carbon dioxide solubility in seawater is also affected by temperature and by the carbonate buffer.
Carbon dioxide is soluble in water, in which it reversibly forms (carbonic acid), which is a weak acid since its ionization in water is incomplete.

Chemical polarity

polarpolaritynonpolar
The overall solvation capacity of a solvent depends primarily on its polarity.
Polarity underlies a number of physical properties including surface tension, solubility, and melting and boiling points.

Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
:where k H is a temperature-dependent constant (for example, 769.2 L·atm/mol for dioxygen (O 2 ) in water at 298 K), p is the partial pressure (atm), and c is the concentration of the dissolved gas in the liquid (mol/L).
Oxygen dissolves more readily in water than nitrogen, and in freshwater more readily than seawater.

Hildebrand solubility parameter

Hildebrand
The Hansen solubility parameters and the Hildebrand solubility parameters are empirical methods for the prediction of solubility.
The Hildebrand solubility parameter provides a numerical estimate of the degree of interaction between materials and can be a good indication of solubility, particularly for nonpolar materials such as many polymers.

Temperature

temperaturesair temperaturewarm
As with other equilibrium constants, temperature can affect the numerical value of solubility constant.

Hansen solubility parameter

Hansen solubility parametersHansen methodHSP
The Hansen solubility parameters and the Hildebrand solubility parameters are empirical methods for the prediction of solubility.
Hansen solubility parameters were developed by Charles M. Hansen in his Ph.D thesis in 1967 as a way of predicting if one material will dissolve in another and form a solution.