Somali Rebellion

Somali RevolutioncollapseoverthrowoutbreakBarre's overthrowejected from powerincreasing rebellionJanuary 1991removed from powerrevolt in the army
The Somali Rebellion was the beginning of the civil war in Somalia that occurred in the late 1970s and early 1990s.wikipedia
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Somali Civil War

civil warSomaliaSomalian Civil War
The Somali Rebellion was the beginning of the civil war in Somalia that occurred in the late 1970s and early 1990s.
The clan-based armed opposition groups eventually managed to overthrow the Barre government in 1991.

Siad Barre

Mohamed Siad BarreMuhammad Siad BarreBarre
The rebellion started in 1986 when Siad Barre began attacking clan-based dissident groups opposed to his rule with his special forces, the "Red Berets" (Duub Cas).
It declined from the late-1970s following Somalia's defeat in the Ogaden War, triggering the Somali Rebellion and severing ties with the Soviet Union.

Ogaden War

Ethio-Somali WarOgaden campaign1977–1978 conflict with Ethiopia
The dissidents had been becoming more powerful for nearly a decade following his abrupt switch of allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States and the disastrous Ogaden War of 1977–1978.
All of these conditions led to a revolt in the army which eventually spiraled into a civil war and Somalia's current situation.

Victory Pioneers

Guulwadayal
In Galcaio, members of the Victory Pioneers, the urban militia known for harassing civilians, raped large numbers of Majeerteen women.
The Victory Pioneers (Guulwadayaal) were a neighborhood-level secret police unit active in the closing years of the Siad Barré regime in Communist Somalia, until its overthrow in 1991.

History of Somalia (1991–2006)

Anarchist SomaliaSomaliaanarchy
Between the fall of Siad Barre's government in January 1991 and the establishment of the Transitional National Government in 2006 (succeeded by the Transitional Federal Government), there was no central government in Somalia.

Somali Armed Forces

Somali National ArmySomali ArmySomali military
Before the Somali civil war broke out, Somalia had the largest and strongest army in the African continent until the collapse of the central government during 1991.

Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan

Mohammed Said Hersi "MorganHersi "MorganHersi Morgan
A policy letter written by Barre's son-in-law and viceroy in the north General Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan known as The Morgan Report formed the basis of the Barre regime's retaliation against the Isaaq following a successful SNM attack on Hargeisa and Burao.

Somali Democratic Republic

SomaliaDemocratic Republic of SomaliaCommunist Somalia
Barre was removed from power on January 26, 1991, and Somalia subsequently collapsed into anarchy.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
The dissidents had been becoming more powerful for nearly a decade following his abrupt switch of allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States and the disastrous Ogaden War of 1977–1978.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
The dissidents had been becoming more powerful for nearly a decade following his abrupt switch of allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States and the disastrous Ogaden War of 1977–1978.

United Nations Operation in Somalia I

UNOSOM IUNOSOMSomalia
From that date until April 1992, fighting continued up until the arrival of the UN missions to Somalia (UNOSOM I and UNOSOM II).

United Nations Operation in Somalia II

UNOSOM IIUNOSOMSomalia
From that date until April 1992, fighting continued up until the arrival of the UN missions to Somalia (UNOSOM I and UNOSOM II).

Isaaq

Habar JecloArapSheikh Isaaq Bin Ahmed Al Hashimi
The most egregious forms of clan-based violence perpetrated by the Barre dictatorship were against the Isaaq and Majeerteen clans.

Majeerteen

MajerteenIsmaan SultanateMajeerteen Sultanate
In Galcaio, members of the Victory Pioneers, the urban militia known for harassing civilians, raped large numbers of Majeerteen women. The most egregious forms of clan-based violence perpetrated by the Barre dictatorship were against the Isaaq and Majeerteen clans. Their leader was Colonel Mahammad Shaykh Usmaan, a member of the Majeerteen clan, which resides mostly in northeastern Somalia. The Red Berets systematically smashed the small reservoirs in the area around Galcaio so as to deny water to the Umar Mahamuud Majeerteen sub-clans and their herds. In May and June 1979, more than 2,000 Umar Mahamuud, the Majeerteen sub-clan of Colonel Ahmad, died of thirst in the waterless area northeast of Galcaio, Garoowe, and Jerriiban.

Somalia

SomaliFederal Republic of SomaliaSOM
Their leader was Colonel Mahammad Shaykh Usmaan, a member of the Majeerteen clan, which resides mostly in northeastern Somalia.

Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed

Abdullahi Yusuf2006 Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed assassination attemptAbdullahi tYusuf Ahmed
One of the plotters, Lieutenant Colonel Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed escaped to Ethiopia and founded an anti-Siad Barre organization initially called the Somali Salvation Front (SSF; later the Somali Salvation Democratic Front, SSDF).

Somali Salvation Democratic Front

SSDFDemocratic Front for Salvation of SomaliaSomali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF)
One of the plotters, Lieutenant Colonel Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed escaped to Ethiopia and founded an anti-Siad Barre organization initially called the Somali Salvation Front (SSF; later the Somali Salvation Democratic Front, SSDF).

Galkayo

GalkacyoGaalkacyoGalcaio
The Red Berets systematically smashed the small reservoirs in the area around Galcaio so as to deny water to the Umar Mahamuud Majeerteen sub-clans and their herds.

Garoowe

GaroweGaroe
In May and June 1979, more than 2,000 Umar Mahamuud, the Majeerteen sub-clan of Colonel Ahmad, died of thirst in the waterless area northeast of Galcaio, Garoowe, and Jerriiban.

Jariban District

Jerriiban
In May and June 1979, more than 2,000 Umar Mahamuud, the Majeerteen sub-clan of Colonel Ahmad, died of thirst in the waterless area northeast of Galcaio, Garoowe, and Jerriiban.

Somali National Movement

SNMSomali National Movement (SNM)
In April 1981, a group of Isaaq businesspeople, students, former civil servants and former politicians who lived in the United Kingdom founded the Somali National Movement in London.

Dire Dawa

DiredawaDire DauaDire-Dawa
By 1982 the SNM transferred their headquarters to Dire Dawa in Ethiopia, as both Somalia and Ethiopia at the time offered safe havens of operation for resistance groups against each other.