Neolithic rock art at the Laas Geel complex depicting a long-horned cow.
Men from Punt carrying Gifts, Tomb of Rekhmire.
The Beden is a fast, ancient Somali single or double-masted maritime ship.
The Silk Road extending from China to southern Europe, Arabia, Somalia, Egypt, Persia, India, and Java.
The Ajuran Sultanate maintained commercial ties with the Ming dynasty and other kingdoms.
Gunpowder wedding of a Prince of Luuq, one of the main cities in the Sultanate of Geledi.
One of the forts of the Majeerteen Sultanate in Hafun.
Mogadishu, capital of Italian Somaliland, with the Catholic Cathedral at the center and the Arch monument in honor of King Umberto I of Italy.
An avenue in downtown Mogadishu in 1963.
Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, Chairman of the Supreme Revolutionary Council, meeting with President of Romania Nicolae Ceauşescu.
Exhumed skeletal remains of victims of the Isaaq genocide found from a mass grave site located in Berbera, Somaliland.
Map of the sites related to the Isaaq genocide
Prior to the civil war, Mogadishu was known as the "White pearl of the Indian Ocean".
Map showing the ICU at the peak of its influence.
Sharif Sheikh Ahmed
Political and military situation in Somalia as of 2020
Structure of the Federal Parliament of Somalia.
A map of Somalia's regions.
The Cal Madow mountain range in Somaliland features the nation's highest peak, Shimbiris.
The Jubba River
Somalia's coral reefs, ecological parks and protected areas
The coast south of Mogadishu
Somalia map of Köppen climate classification.
A camel in the northern mountains.
Mohamed Osman Jawari, Former Speaker of the Federal Parliament
Former President of Somalia Hassan Sheikh Mohamud with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan opening the new terminal of Aden Abdulle International Airport in Mogadishu, Somalia. (25 January 2015)
Turkish embassy in Mogadishu
Instructors from the European Union Training Mission in Somalia (EUTM) take Somali soldiers through training drills at Jazeera Training Camp in Mogadishu.
Air Somalia Tupolev Tu-154 in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Somalia today has several private airlines
A proportional representation of Somalia exports, 2019
Shoppers in Hamarwayne market in Mogadishu
The Port of Bosaso
500 Somali shilling banknote
Oil blocks in Puntland
The Hormuud Telecom building in Mogadishu
Ancient cave paintings near Hargeisa
The Aden Adde International Airport
Population per age group
The Kaddare writing script
The Mosque of Islamic Solidarity in Mogadishu is the largest mosque in the Horn region
Life expectancy in Somalia, 1950 to 2019
A Somali boy receiving a polio vaccination.
Mogadishu University's main campus in Mogadishu.
Various types of popular Somali dishes
Abdi Bile, Somalia's most decorated athlete and holder of the most national records.
The Citadel of Gondershe
2022 Somalia 1 oz Silver coin Leopard (100 shillings)

Country in the Horn of Africa.

- Somalia

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East Cushitic ethnic group native to the Horn of Africa who share a common ancestry, culture and history.

Traditional area inhabited by the Somali ethnic group
Ruins of the Adal Sultanate in Zeila, a kingdom led in the 16th century by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi (Ahmed Gurey).
The Citadel of Gondershe was an important site in the medieval Ajuran Empire.
The Ifat Sultanate's realm in the 14th century.
Illustration of Berbera, 1884
Dervish commander Haji Sudi on the left with his brother in-law Duale Idres. Aden, 1892.
Ali Yusuf Kenadid, 2nd Sultan of the Hobyo Sultanate.
Sultan Abdillahi Deria, a prominent Grand Sultan of British Somaliland of the delegation sent from British Somaliland Protectorate to the British government in London to appeal for the return of Haud Reserve Area, a territory ceded by the British to Ethiopia in 1954.
Mahmoud Harbi, a Somali politician who campaigned for French Somalia to join a united Somali state.
A traditional Somali wedding basket.
The Mosque of Islamic Solidarity in Mogadishu is the largest masjid in the Horn region.
Old Somali stone tablet: After Somali had lost its ancient writing script, Somali scholars over the following centuries developed a writing system known as Wadaad writing to transcribe the language.
Somali language books on display.
Somali woman shows traditional incense during an event to showcase traditional Somali culture
Somali woman building a Somali aqal or buul
Somali singer Saado Ali Warsame.
Somali film producer and director Ali Said Hassan.
A Somali woman with kohl eyes.
Somali women knitting
Mo Farah the most decorated athlete in British athletics history
Somali man wearing a macawis sarong.
Somali woman in traditional Guntino.
Somali woman wearing a Somali flag dress.
Women from Fafan village in the Somali Regional State offering camel milk.
Award-winning author Nadifa Mohamed.
Federal legislator Muna Khalif chairing a political workshop.
Mohamed Osman Jawari, speaker of the Federal Parliament.
A Somali-owned grocery in Columbus, Ohio.
Somali women at a political function in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
ONLF separatist rebels fighting for the right to self-determination for Somalis in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.
Sign on Somali Road in the London Borough of Camden.
A Somali high school student in Cairo, Egypt.
Economist Abdusalam H. Omer.
Journalist Rageh Omaar.
Ilhan Omar, the first Somali elected to the United States Congress.
Ayaan Hirsi Ali
International lawyer Amina Mohamed.
A Somali schoolgirl.
Genetic components present in select Cushitic populations
Genetic components present in select Cushitic/HOA populations (Hollfelder, Nina et al., 2017)
A young Somali man.
Pioneering Somali Studies scholar, Osman Yusuf Kenadid.

Ethnic Somalis are principally concentrated in Somalia (around 8.8 million), Somaliland (5.7 million), Ethiopia (11.7 million), Kenya (2.8 million), and Djibouti (534,000).

Italian Somaliland

Italian Somaliland, with Oltre Giuba acquired in 1925
Francesco Crispi promoted Italian colonialism in Africa in the late 1800s.
Italian Somaliland, with Oltre Giuba acquired in 1925
Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, founder of Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi (Jowhar), the main agricultural colony in Italian Somaliland
1911 map of Somalia showing Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland
Mogadishu in 1936, with the 13th century Arba'a Rukun Mosque in the foreground
Cavalry and fort of the Sultanate of Hobyo, one of the ruling northern Somali polities in the Campaign of the Sultanates
Italian East Africa in 1936 (British Somaliland annexed in 1940 after the Italian invasion)
Fiat's Boero Building in Mogadishu (1940)
A voting registration card in Mogadishu during the British military administration (1949)
First President of the Somali National Assembly, Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf

Italian Somalia (Somalia Italiana; الصومال الإيطالي; Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaalida), was a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day Somalia.

Land of Punt

Ancient kingdom.

A landscape of Punt, showing several houses on stilts, two fruiting date palms, three myrrh trees, a bird (Hedydipna metallica), a cow, an unidentified fish and a turtle, in water which in the original was green to show that it is salt or tidal, in a sketch from the walls of the mortuary temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri, depicting a royal expedition to Punt
A tree in front of Hatshepsut's temple, claimed to have been brought from Punt by Hatshepsut's Expedition, which is depicted on the Temple walls
Egyptian soldiers from Hatshepsut's expedition to the Land of Punt as depicted from her temple at Deir el-Bahri
This relief depicts incense and myrrh trees obtained by Hatshepsut's expedition to Punt
Supposed location around the Red Sea and major travel routes by land and sea

It is possible that it corresponds to Opone in Somalia, as later known by the ancient Greeks, while some biblical scholars have identified it with the biblical land of Put or Havilah.

Somali Civil War

Map of the current phase of the Somali Civil War
Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, Chairman of the Supreme Revolutionary Council and President of Somalia.
A destroyed M47 Patton in Somaliland, left behind wrecked from the Somaliland War of Independence.
Three knocked-out Somali National Army (SNA) M47 Patton medium tanks left abandoned near a warehouse, photographed by U.S. forces in December 1993.
An American soldier at the main entrance to the Port of Mogadishu points to identify a sniper's possible firing position (January 1994).
Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud, leader of the Rahanweyn Resistance Army
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, one of the founders of the Transitional Federal Government, established in 2004
Political situation in Somalia following the Ethiopian military withdrawal, February 3, 2009
The battle flag of Al-Shabaab, an Islamist group waging war against the federal government
Political situation in Somalia in July 2017

The Somali Civil War (Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya; الحرب الأهلية الصومالية al-ḥarb al-’ahliyya aṣ-ṣūmāliyya) is an ongoing civil war that is taking place in Somalia.


Country located in the Horn of Africa.

Geometric design pottery found in Asa Koma
Prehistoric rock art and tombs in Djibouti
Queen Ati, wife of King Perahu of Punt, as depicted on Pharaoh Hatshepsut's temple at Deir el-Bahri
Approximate extension of the Kingdom of Adal
The Ifat Sultanate's realm in the 14th century
The Sultan of Adal (right) and his troops battling King Yagbea-Sion and his men
The Ottoman Eyalet in 1566
Map of the French Somali Coast and neighboring regions in 1870
Referendum demonstration in Djibouti in 1967
An aerial view of Djibouti City, the capital of Djibouti
The Front de Libération de la Côte des Somalis (FLCS)
Ahmed Dini Ahmed proclaiming the Djibouti Declaration of Independence on 27 June 1977
President of Djibouti, Ismaïl Omar Guelleh
Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed, Prime Minister of Djibouti
The Djibouti National Assembly in Djibouti City
Maryama base during a martial exercise in the Arta Region
Grand Bara desert in 2017
A map of Djibouti's regions
Djibouti map of Köppen climate classification.
The Djibouti francolin, a critically endangered species living only in Djibouti
Plant species on the Forêt du Day National Park
Djibouti GDP by sector
A proportional representation of Djibouti's exports
Djibouti's gross domestic product expanded by an average of more than 6 percent per year, from US$341 million in 1985 to US$1.5 billion in 2015
Main Terminal at Djibouti–Ambouli International Airport
The Djibouti Telecom headquarters in Djibouti City
Arta Plage on the Gulf of Tadjoura
Entrance to the ISSS Faculty of Medicine in Djibouti City
Djiboutian women participating in the Global Pulse educational initiative (2010)
Traditional wood-carved jar from Oue'a in the Tadjourah region
The oud is a common instrument in traditional Djibouti music.
El Hadj Hassan Gouled Aptidon Stadium in Djibouti City
A plate of sambusas, a popular traditional snack
Lake Assal
Traditional houses on the Mabla Mountains
Lake Abbe
The mountains near Dasbiyo
thumb|Beach south of Djibouti City, overlooking the Gulf of Aden

It is bordered by Somalia in the south, Ethiopia in the southwest, Eritrea in the north, and the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden in the east.


Map of Somaliland in the 19th century
Wild animals depicted in the caves of Dhaymoole, many of which have gone extinct in the region
The tomb of Sheikh Isaaq, the founding father of the Isaaq clan, in Maydh, Sanaag
The Sultan of Adal (right) and his troops battling King Yagbea-Sion and his men. From Le livre des Merveilles, 15th century.
A banner used by the Adal Sultanate and later the Isaaq on key religious shrines
Captain Allan Gibb
Sheikh Bashir praying Sunnah prayer, 1920
The White and Blue Somali Flag at the Independence celebrations on 26 June 1960 when the prime minister of the State of Somaliland and the second president of Somaliland, Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, salute the flag.
Up to 90% of Hargeisa (2nd largest city of the Somali Republic) was destroyed by Somali government.
MiG monument in Hargeisa commemorating Somaliland's breakaway from the rest of Somalia in 1991
House of Representatives (Lower House) of the Somaliland Parliament.
The Court House of the Supreme Court
Participating in a parade for Kulmiye Party prior to parliamentary elections in 2021
The President of Somaliland Muse Bihi Abdi during a visit to the Republic of Guinea. He received a high-ranking delegation headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Guinea Mamadi Touré in 2019.
Somaliland Foreign Minister Hagi Mohamoud with Taiwan President Tsai Ing-wen
President Silanyo and Ali Khalif signing the Somaliland-Khatumo Agreement in Aynabo in October 2017
Map showing the eastern boundaries of Somaliland by the Somaliland Treaties. The Anglo-Italian Boundary.
Commemoration (on 2 February 2021) of the 27th anniversary of the establishment of the Somaliland National Army
Map of the Republic of Somaliland
Geographic map of Somaliland
Somaliland map of Köppen climate classification
GDP Somaliland 2012 to 2018
500 Somaliland Shillings, 1000 Somaliland Shillings, 5000 Somaliland Shillings
Livestock export in Berbera, Somaliland
Naasa Hablood, also known as Virgin's Breast Mountain
The Berbera Airport
DP World Berbera New Port
Map indicating clan territories and respective populations in the 1950s.
Issa man and woman in traditional attire (1844)
Traditional Somali Qur'anic tablet
Edna Adan Maternity Hospital in Hargeisa
People in Hargeisa
Somali lahoh (canjeero)
Hadrawi, a prominent Somali poet and songwriter
Henna powder is mixed with water and then applied on the hair.
upright|thumb|Lamadaya are waterfalls located in the Cal Madow mountain range.
upright|thumb|The Somaliland countryside
upright|thumb|View of the Cal Madow Mountains, home to numerous endemic species
thumb|Berbera beach
thumb|Sacadin, Zeila Archipelago
thumb|Mountains in Karin's outskirts

Somaliland (Soomaaliland; صوماليلاند ', أرض الصومال '), officially the Republic of Somaliland (Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, جمهورية صوماليلاند Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd), is a de facto state in the Horn of Africa, considered internationally to be part of Somalia.

British Somaliland

British protectorate in present-day Somaliland.

British Somaliland in 1922
Sultans of the Isaaq clan in Hargeisa, Somaliland
British Somaliland in 1922
Mohamoud Ali Shire Sultan of the Warsangali clan
Aerial view of Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's main fort in Taleh, the capital of his Dervish movement
1911 map of Somaliland and Somalia showing British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland
Somaliland Camel Corps between Berbera and Odweyne in 1913.
Market in Hargeisa.
Sheikh Bashir praying Sunnah prayer, 1920
Agreements and Exchanges of Letters between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Somaliland in connexion with the Attainment of Independence by Somaliland
The Somaliland Protectorate Constitutional Conference, London, May 1960 in which it was decided that 26 June would be the day of Independence, and so signed on 12 May 1960. Somaliland Delegation: Mohamed Haji Ibrahim Egal, Ahmed Haji Dualeh, Ali Garad Jama and Haji Ibrahim Nur. From the Colonial Office: Ian Macleod, D. B. Hall, H. C. F. Wilks (Secretary)
Stamps of the Somaliland Protectorate, 1953 issue. Overprinted in 1957 and 1960 to mark events relating to the Legislative Council

The government of Somaliland, a self-declared sovereign state that is internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia, regards itself as the successor state to British Somaliland.

Mohammed Abdullah Hassan

Statue of Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan in Mogadishu, Somalia
Aw Abdille Ibrahim was one of two chosen khusuusis to accompany the Sayid after the Fall of Taleh.
Illustration of Mohamed Abdullah Hassan by da Rondini, from cover of Il Mullah del paese dei somali by Douglas Jardine
The Dervish fort / Dhulbahante garesa in Taleex

Sayid Mohamed Abdullahi Hassan (Sayid Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan; 1856–1920) was a Somali religious and military leader of the Dervish movement, which led a two-decade long confrontation with various colonial empires including the British, Italians, and Abyssinians.

Somali Armed Forces

Emblem of the Somali Armed Forces
The Sultanate of Hobyo's cavalry and fort
Somalia's Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, Chairman of the Supreme Revolutionary Council
Somali engineers repair a captured Ethiopian T-34/85 Model 1969 tank for use by the Western Somali Liberation Front in the Ogaden region, March 1978.
A Somali soldier with an AKM poses for a photograph during the multinational joint-service Exercise Bright Star '85.
An aerial view of a radar installation operated by Somali troops at Berbera Airport. A Soviet-made P-12 early-warning radar is visible at bottom center. The photo was taken during Exercise Eastern Wind '83, the amphibious landing phase of Exercise Bright Star '83.
Tomb of The Unknown Soldier (Flag hasn't been repainted) circa 2018
Then Brigadier General Dahir Adan Elmi, Chief of Defence Force, while meeting with Commander, Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa in 2013
SNAF Parade on Somali Armed Forces day in 2016
Chief of the Somali Military Tribunal, Colonel Hassan Ali Nur Shuute in 2019, in formal service dress
A T-55, one of several SNA tanks
A Somali National Army BTR-60 armoured personnel carrier
Abandoned Somali tanks in Mogadishu, discovered by U.S. Army troops on 1 December 1993
Two Somali Osa-class missile boats during the 1983 Operation Bright Star
Beret and cap badge for all officers of the Somali Armed Forces

The Somali Armed Forces are the military forces of the Federal Republic of Somalia.

Transitional Federal Government of Somalia

ICU Chairman Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, who later became a President of the Transitional Federal Government.
Former President of Somalia Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, one of the founders of the Transitional Federal Government.
Embassy of Somalia in Paris, France.
Foreign Minister Mohamed Abdullahi Omaar in a meeting with UNDP Administrator Helen Clark and other diplomats at the UN headquarters.
Political map of Somalia (as of 25 May 2012).
Current diplomatic missions of Somalia

The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) (Dowladda Federaalka Kumeelgaarka, الحكومة الاتحادية الانتقالية) was internationally recognized as a provisional government of the Republic of Somalia from 14 October 2004 until 20 August 2012, when its tenure officially ended and the Federal Government of Somalia was inaugurated.