Somaliland

RegionRepublic of SomalilandDistrictSomaliaTransport in Somaliland2Administrative divisions of SomalilandChristianity in SomalilandEconomy of SomalilandGeography of Somaliland
Somaliland (Somaliland; صوماليلاند ', أرض الصومال '), officially the Republic of Somaliland (Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland, جمهورية صوماليلاند Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd), is a self-declared state, internationally considered to be an autonomous region of Somalia.wikipedia
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Somalia

SomaliFederal Republic of SomaliaSOM
Somaliland (Somaliland; صوماليلاند ', أرض الصومال '), officially the Republic of Somaliland (Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland, جمهورية صوماليلاند Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd), is a self-declared state, internationally considered to be an autonomous region of Somalia.
The country claims a border with Djibouti through the disputed territory of Somaliland.

Djibouti

Republic of DjiboutiDjiboutianDjibuti
It is bordered by the remainder of Somalia (per international recognition) to the east, Djibouti to the northwest, and Ethiopia to the south and west.
It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, and Somaliland in the southeast.

Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
It is bordered by the remainder of Somalia (per international recognition) to the east, Djibouti to the northwest, and Ethiopia to the south and west.
It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, the de facto state of Somaliland and Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west and Sudan to the northwest.

British Somaliland

SomalilandSomaliland ProtectorateBritish Somaliland Protectorate
The government of the de facto state of Somaliland regards itself as the successor state to the former British Somaliland protectorate, which, in the form of the briefly independent State of Somaliland, united as scheduled on 1 July 1960 with the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic. The first engagement between Somalis of the region and the British was the 1827 "Articles of Friendship and Commerce between the Tribe of Habr Awal and England. This was followed by a British treaty with the Governor of Zeila in 1840. An engagement was then started between the British and elders of Habar Garhajis and Habar Toljaala clans of the Isaaq in 1855, followed a year later by the conclusion of the "Articles of Peace and Friendship" between the Habar Awal and East India Company. These engagements between the British and Somali clans culminated in the formal treaties the British signed with the henceforth 'British Somaliland' clans, which took place between 1884 and 1886 (treaties were signed with the Habar Awal, Gadabursi, Habar Toljaala, Habar Garhajis, Esa, and the Warsangali clans), this paved the way for the British to establish a protectorate in the region referred to as British Somaliland.
British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka), was a British protectorate in present-day Somaliland.

State of Somaliland

Somalilandformer British Somaliland
The government of the de facto state of Somaliland regards itself as the successor state to the former British Somaliland protectorate, which, in the form of the briefly independent State of Somaliland, united as scheduled on 1 July 1960 with the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic.
The State of Somaliland was a short-lived independent country in the territory of present-day de facto independent Republic of Somaliland.

Hargeisa

HargeysaHargaysa
The capital and the largest city is Hargeisa, with the population of around 1,500,000 residents. The central government maintains informal ties with some foreign governments, who have sent delegations to Hargeisa. The Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back around 5,000 years, and has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows.
Hargeisa (Hargeysa, هرجيسا) is a city situated in the Woqooyi Galbeed region of the self-declared but internationally unrecognised Republic of Somaliland in the Horn of Africa.

Foreign relations of Somaliland

unrecognised, secessionist stateSomaliland passportForeign relations
The central government maintains informal ties with some foreign governments, who have sent delegations to Hargeisa.
Foreign relations of the Republic of Somaliland are the responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Republic of Somaliland.

Gulf of Aden

AdenGhoubet
Somaliland lies in northwestern Somalia, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Aden.
The Gulf of Aden, formerly known as the Gulf of Berbera, is a deepwater gulf amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea to the east, Djibouti to the west, and Guardafui Channel, Socotra and Somaliland to the south.

List of states with limited recognition

states with limited recognitionunrecognisedunrecognized
Somaliland (Somaliland; صوماليلاند ', أرض الصومال '), officially the Republic of Somaliland (Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland, جمهورية صوماليلاند Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd), is a self-declared state, internationally considered to be an autonomous region of Somalia.
Kosovo, Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh), Northern Cyprus, Abkhazia, Transnistria, the Sahrawi Republic, Somaliland, and Palestine also host informal diplomatic missions, and/or maintain special delegations or other informal missions abroad.

Zeila

AvalitesSaylacZaila
During the classical period, the northern Barbara city-states of Mosylon, Opone, Mundus, Isis, Malao, Avalites, Essina, Nikon, and Sarapion developed a lucrative trade network, connecting with merchants from Ptolemaic Egypt, Ancient Greece, Phoenicia, Parthian Persia, Saba, the Nabataean Kingdom, and the Roman Empire. The first engagement between Somalis of the region and the British was the 1827 "Articles of Friendship and Commerce between the Tribe of Habr Awal and England. This was followed by a British treaty with the Governor of Zeila in 1840. An engagement was then started between the British and elders of Habar Garhajis and Habar Toljaala clans of the Isaaq in 1855, followed a year later by the conclusion of the "Articles of Peace and Friendship" between the Habar Awal and East India Company. These engagements between the British and Somali clans culminated in the formal treaties the British signed with the henceforth 'British Somaliland' clans, which took place between 1884 and 1886 (treaties were signed with the Habar Awal, Gadabursi, Habar Toljaala, Habar Garhajis, Esa, and the Warsangali clans), this paved the way for the British to establish a protectorate in the region referred to as British Somaliland.
Zeila (Saylac, زيلع), also known as Zaila or Zeyla, is a port city in the northwestern Awdal region of Somaliland.

Laas Geel

Laas GaalLaas Geel complexLas Geel
The Laas Geel complex on the outskirts of Hargeisa in northwestern Somalia dates back around 5,000 years, and has rock art depicting both wild animals and decorated cows.
Laas Geel (Laas Geel), also spelled Laas Gaal, are cave formations on the rural outskirts of Hargeisa, Somaliland (situated in the Woqooyi Galbeed region of the self-declared but internationally unrecognised Republic of Somaliland).

Dhambalin

Other cave paintings are found in the northern Dhambalin region, which feature one of the earliest known depictions of a hunter on horseback.
Dhambalin ("half, vertically cut mountain") is an archaeological site in the northwestern Togdheer province of Somaliland.

Bulhar

IsisPort of Isis
During the classical period, the northern Barbara city-states of Mosylon, Opone, Mundus, Isis, Malao, Avalites, Essina, Nikon, and Sarapion developed a lucrative trade network, connecting with merchants from Ptolemaic Egypt, Ancient Greece, Phoenicia, Parthian Persia, Saba, the Nabataean Kingdom, and the Roman Empire.
Bulhar (Bulaxaar) is a historic port in the Sahil region of Somaliland with routes dating back to antiquity.

Berbera

BarberaBarbaraBerbera dockside
The Ottoman Empire later occupied Berbera and environs in the 1500s.
Berbera (Barbara, بربرة) is a coastal city and capital of the Sahil region in the self-declared but internationally unrecognised Republic of Somaliland.

Heis (town)

HeisMundusMundus/Xīs
During the classical period, the northern Barbara city-states of Mosylon, Opone, Mundus, Isis, Malao, Avalites, Essina, Nikon, and Sarapion developed a lucrative trade network, connecting with merchants from Ptolemaic Egypt, Ancient Greece, Phoenicia, Parthian Persia, Saba, the Nabataean Kingdom, and the Roman Empire.
Heis (Xiis) is a coastal town in the northern Sanaag province of the Republic of Somaliland.

Habr Awal

Habar AwalIssa MusseSa’ad Musse
The first engagement between Somalis of the region and the British was the 1827 "Articles of Friendship and Commerce between the Tribe of Habr Awal and England. This was followed by a British treaty with the Governor of Zeila in 1840. An engagement was then started between the British and elders of Habar Garhajis and Habar Toljaala clans of the Isaaq in 1855, followed a year later by the conclusion of the "Articles of Peace and Friendship" between the Habar Awal and East India Company. These engagements between the British and Somali clans culminated in the formal treaties the British signed with the henceforth 'British Somaliland' clans, which took place between 1884 and 1886 (treaties were signed with the Habar Awal, Gadabursi, Habar Toljaala, Habar Garhajis, Esa, and the Warsangali clans), this paved the way for the British to establish a protectorate in the region referred to as British Somaliland.
They politically and economically dominate Somaliland and reside in the most economically strategic and fertile lands in Somaliland, as well as dominating the national capital Hargeisa where they make up the majority.

Somali Civil War

civil warSomaliaSomalian Civil War
In 1988, the Siad Barre government began a crackdown against the Hargeisa-based Somali National Movement (SNM) and other militant groups, which were among the events that led to the Somali Civil War.
In the northwest, at the Burao conference of April–May 1991, SNM secessionists proclaimed independence for the region under the name Somaliland.

Malao

Malao/Berbera
During the classical period, the northern Barbara city-states of Mosylon, Opone, Mundus, Isis, Malao, Avalites, Essina, Nikon, and Sarapion developed a lucrative trade network, connecting with merchants from Ptolemaic Egypt, Ancient Greece, Phoenicia, Parthian Persia, Saba, the Nabataean Kingdom, and the Roman Empire.
Malao was an ancient proto-Somali port city in present-day Republic of Somaliland.

Taleh

TaleexTaleeh
The conflict ended when the British aerially bombed the Dervish capital of Taleh in February 1920.
Taleh (Taleex, تلأ ح) is a historical town in the eastern Sool region of Somaliland.

Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization

UNPOUnrepresented Nations and Peoples OrganisationInternational Circassian Association
It is a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, an advocacy group whose members consist of indigenous peoples, minorities and unrecognised or occupied territories.

Borama

Boorama
Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal was appointed as Tuur's successor in 1993 by the Grand Conference of National Reconciliation in Borama, which met for four months, leading to a gradual improvement in security, as well as a consolidation of the new territory.
Borama (Boorama, بوراما) is the capital and the largest city of the northwestern Awdal region of Somaliland.

Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal

Mohamed Haji Ibrahim EgalEgalIbrahim Egal
Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal was appointed as Tuur's successor in 1993 by the Grand Conference of National Reconciliation in Borama, which met for four months, leading to a gradual improvement in security, as well as a consolidation of the new territory. In 1967, Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal became Prime Minister, a position to which he was appointed by Shermarke.
He also served as the President of the Republic of Somaliland.

Puntland

Puntland State of SomaliaGeography of PuntlandClimate of Puntland
The war in southern Somalia between Islamist insurgents on the one hand, and the Federal Government of Somalia and its African Union allies on the other, has for the most part not directly affected Somaliland, which, like neighbouring Puntland, has remained relatively stable.
Puntland is bordered by Somaliland to its west, the Gulf of Aden in the north, the Guardafui Channel in the northeast, the Somali Sea in the southeast, the central Galmudug region in the south, and Ethiopia in the southwest.

List of presidents of Somaliland

President of SomalilandPresidentPresidents of Somaliland
The Executive is led by an elected president, whose government includes a vice-president and a Council of Ministers.
This is a list of presidents of the Republic of Somaliland, a self-declared republic that is internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia.

Somaliland shilling

(Sh)SHILLINShilling
The judicial system is divided into district courts, (which deal with matters of family law and succession, lawsuits for amounts up to 3 million SL, criminal cases punishable by up to 3 years imprisonment or 3 million SL fines, and crimes committed by juveniles), regional courts (which deal with lawsuits and criminal cases not within the jurisdiction of district courts, labour and employment claims, and local government elections), regional appeals courts (which deal with all appeals from district and regional courts), and the Supreme Court (which deals with issues between courts and in government, and reviews its own decisions), which is the highest court and also functions as the Constitutional Court.
The Somaliland shilling (Soomaaliland shilin) is the official currency of the Republic of Somaliland, a self-declared republic that is internationally recognized as an autonomous region of Somalia.