Somalis

SomaliSomali peopleSomali clanSomalianethnic Somaliethnic SomalisclanSomalialocal clansSomali sub-clan
The Somali (Soomaalida) are an ethnic group belonging to the Cushitic peoples inhabiting the Horn of Africa.wikipedia
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Somalia

SomaliFederal Republic of SomaliaSOM
Ethnic Somalis number around 28-30 million and are principally concentrated in Somalia (around 14.5 million), Ethiopia (8.5 million), Kenya (2.4–3 million), and Djibouti (534,000).
Around 85% of its residents are ethnic Somalis, who have historically inhabited the northern part of the country.

Somali language

SomalisomAf Soomaali
The overwhelming majority of Somalis speak the Somali language, which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic (formerly Hamito-Semitic) family.
It is spoken as a mother tongue by Somalis in Greater Somalia and the Somali diaspora.

Somali diaspora

diasporaRefugees of Somaliacommunities in Europe
Somali diasporas are also found in parts of the Middle East, North America, Western Europe, African Great Lakes region, Southern Africa and Oceania.
The Somali diaspora refers to expatriate Somalis who reside in areas of the world that have traditionally not been inhabited by their ethnic group.

Djibouti

Republic of DjiboutiDjiboutianDjibuti
Ethnic Somalis number around 28-30 million and are principally concentrated in Somalia (around 14.5 million), Ethiopia (8.5 million), Kenya (2.4–3 million), and Djibouti (534,000).
The state of Djibouti is predominantly inhabited by two ethnic groups, the Somali and the Afar people, the Somalis being the major ethnic group of the country.

Cushitic peoples

CushiticCushiteCushites
The overwhelming majority of Somalis speak the Somali language, which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic (formerly Hamito-Semitic) family. The Somali (Soomaalida) are an ethnic group belonging to the Cushitic peoples inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
Some examples of these peoples include the Afar, Beja, Oromo, Somali, Amhara, Tigrayians (Tigray-Tigrinya), Gurages, and Sidama people among several others.

Samaale

IrirIrir Samaale
Samaale, the oldest common ancestor of several Somali clans, is generally regarded as the source of the ethnonym Somali.
Samali or Samale Samaale, Beesha Samaale), was a proto-Somali who according to Somali tradition is considered the oldest common forefather of several major Somali clans and their respective sub-clans.

Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Ethnic Somalis number around 28-30 million and are principally concentrated in Somalia (around 14.5 million), Ethiopia (8.5 million), Kenya (2.4–3 million), and Djibouti (534,000).
Ethiopia is a multilingual nation with around 80 ethnolinguistic groups, the four largest of which are the Oromo, Amhara, Somali and Tigrayans.

Abyssinian–Adal war

Conquest of AbyssiniaEthiopian-Adal WarEthiopian–Adal War
During the conflict between the Sultanate of Ifat based at Zeila and the Solomonic Dynasty, the Abyssinian emperor had one of his court officials compose a hymn celebrating a military victory over the Sultan of Ifat's eponymous troops.
Adal forces consisted mostly of Somali.

Barbara (region)

BarbaraBarbarBarbara/Barbaroi
An Ancient Chinese document from the 9th century CE referred to the northern Somalia coast — which was then part of a broader region in Northeast Africa known as Barbara, in reference to the area's Berber (Cushitic) inhabitants — as Po-pa-li.
These inhabitants were the ancestors of today's local Afroasiatic-speaking populations such as Sudanese, Somalis and Bejas.

Zeila

AvalitesSaylacZaila
During the conflict between the Sultanate of Ifat based at Zeila and the Solomonic Dynasty, the Abyssinian emperor had one of his court officials compose a hymn celebrating a military victory over the Sultan of Ifat's eponymous troops. The Sultanate of Ifat, led by the Walashma dynasty with its capital at Zeila, ruled over parts of what is now eastern Ethiopia, Djibouti, and northern Somalia. The peaceful conversion of the Somali population by Somali Muslim scholars in the following centuries, the ancient city-states eventually transformed into Islamic Mogadishu, Berbera, Zeila, Barawa, Hafun and Merca, which were part of the Berberi civilization.
Zeila traditionally belongs to the ancient Somali tribe called Dir who are the original inhabitants and founders of the ancient city.

Ajuran Sultanate

Ajuran EmpireAjuranAjuran period
In the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade including the Ajuran Sultanate, which excelled in hydraulic engineering and fortress building, the Adal Sultanate, whose general Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Ahmed Gurey) was the first commander to use cannon warfare on the continent during Adal's conquest of the Ethiopian Empire, and the Sultanate of the Geledi, whose military dominance forced governors of the Omani empire north of the city of Lamu to pay tribute to the Somali Sultan Ahmed Yusuf.
The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, دولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian ocean trade.

Adal Sultanate

AdalSultanate of AdalAdal Kingdom
In the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade including the Ajuran Sultanate, which excelled in hydraulic engineering and fortress building, the Adal Sultanate, whose general Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Ahmed Gurey) was the first commander to use cannon warfare on the continent during Adal's conquest of the Ethiopian Empire, and the Sultanate of the Geledi, whose military dominance forced governors of the Omani empire north of the city of Lamu to pay tribute to the Somali Sultan Ahmed Yusuf.
spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Somali kingdom and sultanate located in the Horn of Africa.

Sultanate of the Geledi

Geledi SultanateGelediGobroon Dynasty
In the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade including the Ajuran Sultanate, which excelled in hydraulic engineering and fortress building, the Adal Sultanate, whose general Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Ahmed Gurey) was the first commander to use cannon warfare on the continent during Adal's conquest of the Ethiopian Empire, and the Sultanate of the Geledi, whose military dominance forced governors of the Omani empire north of the city of Lamu to pay tribute to the Somali Sultan Ahmed Yusuf.
The Sultanate of the Geledi (Saldanadda Geledi, سلطنة غلدي) was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa during the late-17th century and 19th century.

Habr Awal

Habar AwalIssa MusseSa’ad Musse
Historically, the port of Berbera was controlled indigenously between the mercantile Reer Ahmed Nur and Reer Yunis Nuh sub-clans of the Habar Awal.
The Habr Awal (Habar Awal, هبر أول, Zubair Abdirahman (Awal) Shiekh Isaaq ibn Ahmad al-Hashimi; also spelled Zubeyr Awal, or Subeer Awal) is a major Somali clan in horn of Africa and which is divided into eight sub-clans of which the two largest and most prominent are the Issa Musse clans and the Sa’ad Musse clans.

Hargeisa

HargeysaHargaysa
During the Stone Age, the Doian and Hargeisan cultures flourished here with their respective industries and factories.
In 1888, after signing successive treaties with the then ruling Somali Sultans such as Mohamoud Ali Shire of the Warsangali Sultanate, the British established a protectorate in the region referred to as British Somaliland.

Kenya

KenyanRepublic of KenyaKEN
Ethnic Somalis number around 28-30 million and are principally concentrated in Somalia (around 14.5 million), Ethiopia (8.5 million), Kenya (2.4–3 million), and Djibouti (534,000).
Concurrently, the Kenyan army fought the Shifta War against ethnic Somali rebels inhabiting the Northern Frontier District, who wanted to join their kin in the Somali Republic to the north.

Ahmed Yusuf (Gobroon)

Ahmed YusufAhmed Yusuf of Geledi
In the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade including the Ajuran Sultanate, which excelled in hydraulic engineering and fortress building, the Adal Sultanate, whose general Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Ahmed Gurey) was the first commander to use cannon warfare on the continent during Adal's conquest of the Ethiopian Empire, and the Sultanate of the Geledi, whose military dominance forced governors of the Omani empire north of the city of Lamu to pay tribute to the Somali Sultan Ahmed Yusuf.
Ahmed Yusuf Gobroon (Axmed Yuusuf Gobroon, أحمد يوسف) was a Somali ruler.

Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi

Ahmad GragnAhmad ibn Ibrihim al-GhaziAhmed Gragn
In the Middle Ages, several powerful Somali empires dominated the regional trade including the Ajuran Sultanate, which excelled in hydraulic engineering and fortress building, the Adal Sultanate, whose general Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Ahmed Gurey) was the first commander to use cannon warfare on the continent during Adal's conquest of the Ethiopian Empire, and the Sultanate of the Geledi, whose military dominance forced governors of the Omani empire north of the city of Lamu to pay tribute to the Somali Sultan Ahmed Yusuf.
With the help of an army mainly composed of Somalis, the Harla people, Afars, Hararis and a small number of Arabs and Ottoman Turks, Imam Ahmad (nicknamed Gurey in Somali, "Gura" in Afar and Gragn in Amharic (ግራኝ Graññ), all meaning "the left-handed"), embarked on a conquest which brought three-quarters of Abyssinia (modern day Ethiopia) under the power of the Muslim Sultanate of Adal during the Abyssinian-Adal War from 1529-43.

Majeerteen Sultanate

MajeerteenMigiurtiniaMajerteen Sultanate
Majeerteen Sultanate was founded in the early-18th century.
The Majeerteen Sultanate (Suldanadda Majeerteen, سلطنة مجرتين), also known as Majeerteenia and Migiurtinia, was a Somali kingdom centered in the Horn of Africa.

Walashma dynasty

WalashmadynastiesNahwi bin Mansur bin Umar Walashma
The Sultanate of Ifat, led by the Walashma dynasty with its capital at Zeila, ruled over parts of what is now eastern Ethiopia, Djibouti, and northern Somalia.
He is a very famous Somali saint figure.

Sultanate of Hobyo

Sultan of Hobyo
The Majeerteen Sultanate was nearly destroyed in the late-1800s by a power struggle between Boqor (King) Osman Mahamuud of the Majeerteen Sultanate and his ambitious cousin, Yusuf Ali Kenadid who founded a separate Kingdom, Sultanate of Hobyo in 1878.
The Sultanate of Hobyo (Saldanadda Hobyo, سلطنة هوبيو), also known as the Sultanate of Obbia, was a 19th-century Somali kingdom in present-day northeastern and central Somalia and eastern Ethiopia.

Berbera

BarberaBarbaraBerbera dockside
Historically, the port of Berbera was controlled indigenously between the mercantile Reer Ahmed Nur and Reer Yunis Nuh sub-clans of the Habar Awal. The peaceful conversion of the Somali population by Somali Muslim scholars in the following centuries, the ancient city-states eventually transformed into Islamic Mogadishu, Berbera, Zeila, Barawa, Hafun and Merca, which were part of the Berberi civilization.
Berbera was part of the classical Somali city-states that engaged in a lucrative trade network connecting Somali merchants with Phoenicia, Ptolemic Egypt, Ancient Greece, Parthian Persia, Saba, Nabataea and the Roman Empire.

Italian Somaliland

Italian SomaliaSomaliaSomaliland
In late 1888, Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid entered into a treaty with the Italian government, making his Sultanate of Hobyo an Italian protectorate known as Italian Somaliland.
Ruled in the 19th century by the Somali Majeerteen Sultanate and the Sultanate of Hobyo, the territory was later acquired in the 1880s by Italy through various treaties.

Yusuf Ali Kenadid

Yusuf Ali Keenadid
The Majeerteen Sultanate was nearly destroyed in the late-1800s by a power struggle between Boqor (King) Osman Mahamuud of the Majeerteen Sultanate and his ambitious cousin, Yusuf Ali Kenadid who founded a separate Kingdom, Sultanate of Hobyo in 1878.
Yusuf Ali Kenadid (Yuusuf Cali Keenadiid) was a Somali Sultan.

Mogadishu

Mogadishu, SomaliaMogadiscioMuqdisho
The peaceful conversion of the Somali population by Somali Muslim scholars in the following centuries, the ancient city-states eventually transformed into Islamic Mogadishu, Berbera, Zeila, Barawa, Hafun and Merca, which were part of the Berberi civilization.
Mogadishu was part of the Somali city-states that in engaged in a lucrative trade network connecting Somali merchants with Phoenicia, Ptolemic Egypt, Greece, Parthian Persia, Saba, Nabataea and the Roman Empire.