Somnolence

drowsinesssleepinessdrowsySomnolentDesire to sleepDifficulty staying awakediurnal somnolencefall asleepSleepysomnolescence
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).wikipedia
398 Related Articles

Shift work sleep disorder

shift work disorderexhaustedshift work
However, the concept of somnolence recurring at certain times for certain reasons constitutes various disorders, such as excessive daytime sleepiness, shift work sleep disorder, and others; and there are medical codes for somnolence as viewed as a disorder.
Shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by insomnia and excessive sleepiness affecting people whose work hours overlap with the typical sleep period.

Disease

morbidityillnessdiseases
Somnolence is often viewed as a symptom rather than a disorder by itself.
The terms Illness and sickness are both generally used as a synonym for disease. However, the term illness is occasionally used to refer specifically to the patient's personal experience of his or her disease. In this model, it is possible for a person to have a disease without being ill (to have an objectively definable, but asymptomatic, medical condition, such as a subclinical infection), and to be ill without being diseased (such as when a person perceives a normal experience as a medical condition, or medicalizes a non-disease situation in his or her life—for example, a person who feels unwell as a result of embarrassment, and who interprets those feelings as sickness rather than normal emotions). Symptoms of illness are often not directly the result of infection, but a collection of evolved responses—sickness behavior by the body—that helps clear infection and promote recovery. Such aspects of illness can include lethargy, depression, loss of appetite, sleepiness, hyperalgesia, and inability to concentrate.

Fever

febrilepyrexiaague
Such somnolence is one of several sickness behaviors or reactions to infection that some theorize evolved to promote recovery by conserving energy while the body fights the infection using fever and other means.
A fever is usually accompanied by sickness behavior, which consists of lethargy, depression, anorexia, sleepiness, hyperalgesia, and the inability to concentrate.

Sickness behavior

sicknesssickness behavioursickness behaviour.
Such somnolence is one of several sickness behaviors or reactions to infection that some theorize evolved to promote recovery by conserving energy while the body fights the infection using fever and other means.
sleepiness,

Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmack
analgesics – mostly prescribed or illicit opiates such as OxyContin or heroin
Common side effects include respiratory depression (decreased breathing), dry mouth, drowsiness, impaired mental function, constipation, and addiction.

Gabapentin

NeurontinFranklin v. Parke-Davis
anticonvulsants / antiepileptics – such as phenytoin (Dilantin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), Lyrica (Pregabalin), Gabapentin
Common side effects of gabapentin include sleepiness and dizziness.

Pregabalin

Lyrica
anticonvulsants / antiepileptics – such as phenytoin (Dilantin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), Lyrica (Pregabalin), Gabapentin
Common side effects include: sleepiness, confusion, trouble with memory, poor motor coordination, dry mouth, problem with vision, and weight gain.

Hypercalcaemia

hypercalcemiahigh blood calciumhigh blood calcium levels
Hypercalcemia – Too much calcium in the blood
The sluggish nerves also explain drowsiness, confusion, hallucinations, stupor and / or coma.

Oxycodone

OxyContinEukodolpain killers
analgesics – mostly prescribed or illicit opiates such as OxyContin or heroin
Common side effects of oxycodone include constipation (23%), nausea (23%), vomiting (12%), somnolence (23%), dizziness (13%), itching (13%), dry mouth (6%), and sweating (5%).

Microsleep

micro-sleepmicro-sleepsMicrosleeps
When a person is sufficiently fatigued, microsleeps may be experienced.
Particularly, somnolence is a recognized adverse effect of dopamine agonists, pramipexole and ropinirole.

Ziprasidone

Geodon
antipsychotics – for example, thioridazine, quetiapine (Seroquel), olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone, and ziprasidone (Geodon) but not haloperidol
Common side effects include dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth, and twitches.

Doxylamine

doxylamine succinate
antihistamines – for instance, diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Nytol) and doxylamine (Unisom-2)
Because of its relatively long elimination half-life (10–12 hours), doxylamine is associated with daytime/next-day drowsiness, grogginess, dry mouth, and tiredness when used as a hypnotic.

Quetiapine

SeroquelSeroquel (quetiapine)Seroquel XR
antipsychotics – for example, thioridazine, quetiapine (Seroquel), olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone, and ziprasidone (Geodon) but not haloperidol
Somnolence (drowsiness; of 15 antipsychotics quetiapine causes the 5th most sedation. Extended release (XR) formulations tend to produce less sedation, dose-by-dose than the immediate release formulations)

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson diseaseParkinson’s disease
dopamine agonists used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease – e.g. pergolide, ropinirole and pramipexole.
Symptoms can manifest as daytime drowsiness (including sudden sleep attacks resembling narcolepsy), disturbances in REM sleep, or insomnia.

Nitrazepam

Mogadonserum
tranquilizers / hypnotics – such as zopiclone (Zimovane), or the benzodiazepines such as diazepam (Valium) or nitrazepam (Mogadon) and the barbiturates, such as amobarbital (Amytal) or secobarbital (Seconal)
More common side effects may include: Central nervous system depression, including somnolence, dizziness, depressed mood, fatigue, ataxia, headache, vertigo, impairment of memory, impairment of motor functions, hangover feeling in the morning, slurred speech, decreased physical performance, numbed emotions, reduced alertness, muscle weakness, double vision, and inattention have been reported.

Dopamine agonist

dopamine agonistsdopamine receptor agonistagonist
dopamine agonists used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease – e.g. pergolide, ropinirole and pramipexole.
Drowsiness

Haloperidol

HaldolHaloparidolhaloperidol decanoate
antipsychotics – for example, thioridazine, quetiapine (Seroquel), olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone, and ziprasidone (Geodon) but not haloperidol
Somnolence (which is not a particularly prominent side effect, as is supported by the results of the aforementioned meta-analysis. )

Postprandial somnolence

food comaDrowsiness after eatingpost-lunch drowsiness
Postprandial somnolence
Postprandial somnolence (colloquially known as the itis, food coma, after dinner dip, or postprandial sleep) is a normal state of drowsiness or lassitude following a meal.

Fatigue

exhaustionOverexertionfeeling tired
When a person is sufficiently fatigued, microsleeps may be experienced.
It can manifest as somnolence, lethargy, or directed attention fatigue.

Antipsychotic

antipsychoticsneurolepticneuroleptics
antipsychotics – for example, thioridazine, quetiapine (Seroquel), olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone, and ziprasidone (Geodon) but not haloperidol
Iloperidone – Approved by the US FDA in 2009, it is fairly well tolerated, although hypotension, dizziness, and somnolence were very common side effects. Has not received regulatory approval in other countries, however.

Amlodipine

amlodipine maleateLópez Obradordipine
hypertension medications – such as amlodipine
Common but not dose-related side effects are fatigue (4.5% vs. 2.8% with a placebo), nausea (2.9% vs. 1.9%), abdominal pain (1.6% vs. 0.3%), and somnolence (1.4% vs. 0.6%).

Hypnagogia

hypnagogichypnagogic hallucinationshypnagogic state
Hypnagogia
People who have spent a long time at some repetitive activity before sleep, in particular one that is new to them, may find that it dominates their imagery as they grow drowsy, a tendency dubbed the Tetris effect.

Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitorSNRIserotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
antidepressants – for instance sedating tricyclic antidepressants, and mirtazapine. Somnolence is less common with SSRIs and SNRIs as well as MAOIs.
Somnolence

Benadryl

antihistamines – for instance, diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Nytol) and doxylamine (Unisom-2)
Diphenhydramine can also cause sleepiness.

Secobarbital

SeconalQuinalbarbitonesecobarbitol
tranquilizers / hypnotics – such as zopiclone (Zimovane), or the benzodiazepines such as diazepam (Valium) or nitrazepam (Mogadon) and the barbiturates, such as amobarbital (Amytal) or secobarbital (Seconal)
Somnolence