Sonata form

sonata-allegro formsonata-allegrodevelopmentdevelopment sectionsonatasonata-formretransitionsonata allegrosonata allegro formexposition
Sonata form (also sonata-allegro form or first movement form) is a musical structure consisting of three main sections: an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation.wikipedia
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Symphony

symphoniessymphonicsymphonic works
After its establishment, the sonata form became the most common form in the first movement of works entitled "sonata", as well as other long works of classical music, including the symphony, concerto, string quartet, and so on.
Although the term has had many meanings from its origins in the ancient Greek era, by the late 18th century the word had taken on the meaning common today: a work usually consisting of multiple distinct sections or movements, often four, with the first movement in sonata form.

Concerto

concerticoncertosconcertante
After its establishment, the sonata form became the most common form in the first movement of works entitled "sonata", as well as other long works of classical music, including the symphony, concerto, string quartet, and so on. However, as what Grove, following Charles Rosen, calls a "principle"—a typical approach to shaping a large piece of instrumental music—it can be seen to be active in a much greater variety of pieces and genres, from minuet to concerto to sonata-rondo.
It is conventional to state that the first movements of concertos from the Classical period onwards follow the structure of sonata form.

Sonata

sonatassonata formClassical sonata
After its establishment, the sonata form became the most common form in the first movement of works entitled "sonata", as well as other long works of classical music, including the symphony, concerto, string quartet, and so on.
The term came to apply both to the structure of individual movements (see Sonata form and History of sonata form) and to the layout of the movements in a multi-movement work.

String quartet

string quartetsquartetstring ensemble
After its establishment, the sonata form became the most common form in the first movement of works entitled "sonata", as well as other long works of classical music, including the symphony, concerto, string quartet, and so on.
The standard structure for a string quartet as established in the Classical era is four movements, with the first movement in Sonata form, Allegro, in the tonic key; a slow movement, in a related key and a Minuet and Trio follow; and the fourth movement is often in Rondo form or Sonata rondo form, in the tonic key.

Coda (music)

codacodascodetta
In addition, the standard definition recognizes that an introduction and a coda may be present.
Codas were commonly used in both sonata form and variation movements during the Classical era.

Sonata rondo form

sonata-rondosonata rondorondo-sonata form
However, as what Grove, following Charles Rosen, calls a "principle"—a typical approach to shaping a large piece of instrumental music—it can be seen to be active in a much greater variety of pieces and genres, from minuet to concerto to sonata-rondo.
As the name implies, it is a blend of sonata form and rondo form.

Chamber music

chamberchamber ensemblechamber works
As a formal model it is usually best exemplified in the first movements of multi-movement works from this period, whether orchestral or chamber, and has, thus, been referred to frequently as "first-movement form" or "sonata-allegro form" (since the typical first movement in a three- or four-movement cycle will be in allegro tempo).

Musical development

developmentdevelopeddevelopment section
The standard definition focuses on the thematic and harmonic organization of tonal materials that are presented in an exposition, elaborated and contrasted in a development and then resolved harmonically and thematically in a recapitulation.
In sonata form, the middle section (between the exposition and the recapitulation) is called the development.

Recapitulation (music)

recapitulationrecapitulaterecapitulated
The standard definition focuses on the thematic and harmonic organization of tonal materials that are presented in an exposition, elaborated and contrasted in a development and then resolved harmonically and thematically in a recapitulation.
In music theory, the recapitulation is one of the sections of a movement written in sonata form.

Exposition (music)

expositionexpositionalexpositions
The standard definition focuses on the thematic and harmonic organization of tonal materials that are presented in an exposition, elaborated and contrasted in a development and then resolved harmonically and thematically in a recapitulation.
The term is most widely used as an analytical convenience to denote a portion of a movement identified as an example of classical tonal sonata form.

Binary form

binaryrounded binary formbinary in form
Seen in this way, sonata form was closest to binary form, out of which it probably developed.
Around the middle of the 18th century, the form largely fell from use as the principal design of entire movements as sonata form and organic development gained prominence.

Classical period (music)

ClassicalClassical periodClassical era
It has been used widely since the middle of the 18th century (the early Classical period).
The Classical period also saw the gradual development of sonata form, a set of structural principles for music that reconciled the Classical preference for melodic material with harmonic development, which could be applied across musical genres.

Subject (music)

themethemessubject
Perhaps the most extensive contemporary description of the sonata-form type of movement may have been given by the theorist Heinrich Christoph Koch in 1793: like earlier German theorists and unlike many of the descriptions of the form we are used to today, he defined it in terms of the movement's plan of modulation and principal cadences, without saying a great deal about the treatment of themes.
Most fugues are monothematic and most pieces in sonata form are polythematic.

Carl Czerny

CzernyKarl CzernyCzerny, Carl
It was originally promulgated by Anton Reicha in Traité de haute composition musicale in 1826, by Adolf Bernhard Marx in Die Lehre von der musikalischen Komposition in 1845, and by Carl Czerny in 1848.
They blend the traditional sonata form elements with baroque elements, such as the use of fugato, and free forms of fantasy.

Transition (music)

transitiontransitionaltransitions
It may traditionally be a part of the sonata form's exposition in which the composer modulates from the key of the first subject to the key of the second, though many Classical era works move straight from first to second subject groups without any transition.

Piano Sonata No. 8 (Beethoven)

Piano Sonata No. 8Sonata PathétiquePathétique
Often, this occurs as late as the coda, as in Mozart's String Quintet in D major KV 593, Haydn's "Drumroll" Symphony, Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 8 ("Pathétique"), or Schubert's Symphony No. 9 ("Great").
The first movement is in sonata form.

Charles Rosen

Rosen, CharlesCharlesRosen
However, as what Grove, following Charles Rosen, calls a "principle"—a typical approach to shaping a large piece of instrumental music—it can be seen to be active in a much greater variety of pieces and genres, from minuet to concerto to sonata-rondo.
The first section of a sonata exposition always has an increasingly animated texture.

Introduction (music)

introductionintrointroductions
In addition, the standard definition recognizes that an introduction and a coda may be present.
If a movement in sonata form starts with an introductory section, this introduction is not usually analyzed as being part of the movement's exposition.

Piano Sonata No. 2 (Chopin)

Piano Sonata No. 2Funeral MarchPiano Sonata No. 2 in B-flat minor
Much later, Chopin's Piano Sonata No. 2 (Op.
The first movement is in a modified sonata form in B minor and time.

Symphony No. 3 (Beethoven)

EroicaSymphony No. 3Eroica Symphony
The development varies greatly in length from piece to piece and from time period to time period, sometimes being relatively short compared to the exposition (e.g., the first movement of Eine kleine Nachtmusik) and in other cases quite long and detailed (e.g., the first movement of the "Eroica" Symphony).
The first movement, in time, is in sonata form, with typical performances between 12 and 18 minutes long depending on interpretation and whether the exposition repeat is played.

Anton Reicha

ReichaAntoine ReichaAntonín Rejcha
It was originally promulgated by Anton Reicha in Traité de haute composition musicale in 1826, by Adolf Bernhard Marx in Die Lehre von der musikalischen Komposition in 1845, and by Carl Czerny in 1848.
Indeed, Reicha's experiences as a flautist must have helped in the creation of these pieces, in which he systematically explored the possibilities of the wind ensemble and invented an extended sonata form variant that could accommodate as many as five principal themes.

Key (music)

keykeysminor key
In Classical sonata form, the second key was typically marked with a contrasting theme.

Piano Sonata No. 29 (Beethoven)

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For instance, the first movement of the "Waldstein" sonata, in C major, modulates to the mediant E major, while the opening movement of the "Hammerklavier" sonata, in B major, modulates to the submediant G major, and String Quartet No. 13 in the same key modulating to the flattened submediant key of G major.
It represents the spectacular emergence of many of the themes that were to recur in Beethoven's late period: the reinvention of traditional forms, such as sonata form; a brusque humour; and a return to pre-classical compositional traditions, including an exploration of modal harmony and reinventions of the fugue within classical forms.

Symphony No. 2 (Strauss)

Symphony No. 2Symphony (No. 2)Symphony 2
The first movement of Richard Strauss's Symphony No. 2, in F minor, modulates to the submediant D minor, as do the F minor first movements of Brahms' first clarinet sonata and piano quintet; all three works balance this downward third by moving up to the major mediant (A major) for the key of the second movement.
The first movement is a sonata form allegro with three themes.

Eine kleine Nachtmusik

Serenade No. 13Serenade No. 13 for strings in G majorMozart's Serenade No. 13
The development varies greatly in length from piece to piece and from time period to time period, sometimes being relatively short compared to the exposition (e.g., the first movement of Eine kleine Nachtmusik) and in other cases quite long and detailed (e.g., the first movement of the "Eroica" Symphony).
The movement is written in sonata form (regardless of the fact that it is originally marked as 'Rondo').