Song dynasty

SongSouthern Song dynastyNorthern Song dynastySouthern SongSong EmpireSong ChinaNorthern SongSong dynastiesSungSung dynasty
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279.wikipedia
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Emperor Taizu of Song

Zhao KuangyinEmperor TaizuTaizu
The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976) personal name Zhao Kuangyin, courtesy name Yuanlang, was the founder and first emperor of the Song dynasty in China.

Yuan dynasty

YuanYuan ChinaYuan Empire
It was eventually conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
It followed the Song dynasty and preceded the Ming dynasty.

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

Five Dynasties and Ten KingdomsFive Dynasties periodFive Dynasties
The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. 960–976) spent sixteen years conquering the rest of China, reuniting much of the territory that had once belonged to the Han and Tang empires and ending the upheaval of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Traditionally, the era started with the fall of the Tang dynasty in 907 AD and reached its climax with the founding of the dominant Song dynasty in 960.

Jin–Song Wars

Jin-Song WarsJurchen campaigns against the Song DynastyJurchen invasion
The Southern Song (1127–1279) refers to the period after the Song lost control of its northern half to the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in the Jin–Song Wars.
The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279).

Kaifeng

DaliangBianjingDongjing
During the Northern Song (960–1127), the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng) and the dynasty controlled most of what is now Eastern China.
It is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China, having been the capital seven times in history, and is best known for being the Chinese capital in the Northern Song dynasty.

Banknote

paper moneybanknotespaper currency
The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy.
The first known banknote was first developed in China during the Tang and Song dynasties, starting in the 7th century.

Economy of the Song dynasty

first developed in ChinaSong DynastyChinese
This dramatic increase of population fomented an economic revolution in pre-modern China.
For over three centuries during the Song dynasty (960–1279) China experienced sustained growth in per capita income and population, structural change in the economy, and increased pace of technological innovation.

Naval history of China

marinernavyrebellion of Gongsun Shu
The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy.
Although numerous naval battles took place before the 12th century, such as the large-scale Three Kingdoms Battle of Chibi in the year 208, it was during the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD) that the Chinese established a permanent, standing navy in 1132 AD.

Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

Jin dynastyJinJin/Jurchen dynasty
The Song often came into conflict with the contemporaneous Liao, Western Xia and Jin dynasties to its north.
After vanquishing the Liao, the Jurchen Jin launched an over hundred-year struggles against the Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279), which was based in southern China.

Gunpowder

black powderpowderblack-powder
This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass.
The earliest chemical formula for gunpowder appeared in the 11th century Song dynasty text, Wujing Zongyao, however gunpowder had already been used for fire arrows since at least the 10th century.

Zhu Xi

Chu HsiZhushushigaku
Philosophers such as Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi reinvigorated Confucianism with new commentary, infused with Buddhist ideals, and emphasized a new organization of classic texts that brought out the core doctrine of Neo-Confucianism.
Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese calligrapher, historian, philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.

Mongol conquest of China

Mongol invasion of ChinaMongol invasionMongolian China
The Mongol invasion eventually led to a Chinese reunification under the Yuan dynasty.
It spanned six decades in the 13th century and involved the defeat of the Jin dynasty, Western Xia, the Dali Kingdom and the Southern Song.

Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty

conquestMongolian invasionSong-Yuan Wars
After two decades of sporadic warfare, Kublai Khan's armies conquered the Song dynasty in 1279, after the Southern Song suffered military defeat in the Battle of Yamen.
Before the Mongol–Jin War escalated, an envoy from the Song dynasty of China arrived at the court of the Mongols, perhaps to negotiate a united offensive against the Jin dynasty, who the Song had previously fought during the Jin–Song Wars.

Battle of Yamen

Yamen1279 invasion of Southern Chinalast stand
After two decades of sporadic warfare, Kublai Khan's armies conquered the Song dynasty in 1279, after the Southern Song suffered military defeat in the Battle of Yamen.
The naval Battle of Yamen (also known as the Naval Battle of Mount Ya; ) took place on 19 March 1279 and is considered to be the last stand of the Song dynasty against the invading Mongol Yuan dynasty.

Imperial examination

imperial examinationsjinshicivil service examinations
Although the institution of the civil service examinations had existed since the Sui dynasty, it became much more prominent in the Song period.
The system reached its apogee during the Song dynasty and lasted until the final years of the Qing dynasty in 1905.

History of the Song dynasty

New Policies GroupSong ZhunMongol soldiers
960–976) spent sixteen years conquering the rest of China, reuniting much of the territory that had once belonged to the Han and Tang empires and ending the upheaval of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960–1279) of China was a ruling dynasty that controlled China proper and southern China from the middle of the 10th century into the last quarter of the 13th century.

Chinese nobility

nobilitywang1st-rank princely peerage for imperial son of Ming Dynasty
The officials who gained power by succeeding in the exams became a leading factor in the shift from a military-aristocratic elite to a bureaucratic elite.
After the Song dynasty, most bureaucratic offices were filled though the imperial examination system, undermining the power of the hereditary aristocracy.

Western Xia

Western Xia dynastyXi XiaXixia
The Song often came into conflict with the contemporaneous Liao, Western Xia and Jin dynasties to its north.
Their extensive stance among the other empires of the Liao, Song, and Jin was attributable to their effective military organizations that integrated cavalry, chariots, archery, shields, artillery (cannons carried on the back of camels), and amphibious troops for combat on land and water.

Compass

magnetic compassDigital compassmariner's compass
This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass.
Among the Four Great Inventions, the magnetic compass was first invented as a device for divination as early as the Chinese Han Dynasty (since c. 206 BC), and later adopted for navigation by the Song Dynasty Chinese during the 11th century.

Neo-Confucianism

Neo-ConfucianNeo-ConfucianistNeo-Confucians
Philosophers such as Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi reinvigorated Confucianism with new commentary, infused with Buddhist ideals, and emphasized a new organization of classic texts that brought out the core doctrine of Neo-Confucianism.
Neo-Confucianism (, often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.

Chongqing

ChungkingChongqing MunicipalityChongqing, China
Möngke Khan, the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, died in 1259 while besieging the mountain castle Diaoyucheng, Chongqing.
It received its current name in 1189, after Prince Zhao Dun of the Southern Song dynasty described his crowning as king and then Emperor Guangzong as a "double celebration" (, or chongqing in short).

Cheng Yi (philosopher)

Cheng YiChengYi
Philosophers such as Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi reinvigorated Confucianism with new commentary, infused with Buddhist ideals, and emphasized a new organization of classic texts that brought out the core doctrine of Neo-Confucianism.
Cheng Yi (, 1033–1107), courtesy name Zhengshu, also known as Yichuan Xiansheng, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, essayist, and writer of the Song Dynasty.

Confucianism

ConfucianConfucianistConfucian philosophy
Philosophers such as Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi reinvigorated Confucianism with new commentary, infused with Buddhist ideals, and emphasized a new organization of classic texts that brought out the core doctrine of Neo-Confucianism.
This reinvigorated form was adopted as the basis of the imperial exams and the core philosophy of the scholar official class in the Song dynasty (960–1297).

Dynasties in Chinese history

dynastydynastiesChinese dynasties
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279.
For example, the Song dynasty is divided into the Northern Song and the Southern Song, with the Jingkang Incident as the dividing line; the original "Song" founded by the Emperor Taizu of Song was therefore differentiated from the "Song" restored under the Emperor Gaozong of Song.

Ancient maritime history

ancient maritime routesancient Mediterranean worldmaritime
The Southern Song dynasty considerably bolstered its naval strength to defend its waters and land borders and to conduct maritime missions abroad.
This led to the development of China's own maritime technologies later on, during the Song dynasty in the 10th to 13th century AD.