A report on Sophia (wisdom)

Personification of Wisdom (, Sophía) at the Library of Celsus in Ephesus (second century).
Icon of Divine Wisdom (София Премудрость Божия) from St George Church in Vologda (16th century).
Reconstruction of the Hagia Sophia basilica in Istanbul (section)
"Wisdom hath built her house" (Премудрость созда Себе дом, Novgorod, 16th century).
Statue of Sophia in Sofia, Bulgaria

Central idea in Hellenistic philosophy and religion, Platonism, Gnosticism and Christian theology.

- Sophia (wisdom)
Personification of Wisdom (, Sophía) at the Library of Celsus in Ephesus (second century).

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Wisdom Defending Youth against Love by Meynier, c. 1810

Wisdom

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Ability to contemplate and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense and insight.

Ability to contemplate and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense and insight.

Wisdom Defending Youth against Love by Meynier, c. 1810
Early mention of wisdom in Beowulf
Truth and Wisdom assist History in writing by Jacob de Wit, 1754
David and Abigail, Abigail was a "wise woman" who helped David, 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld
Solomon and Lady Wisdom by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld, 1860
Solomon's Wisdom, 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld

To Socrates and Plato, philosophy was literally the love of wisdom (philo-sophia).

Phronesis

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Ancient Greek word for a type of wisdom or intelligence relevant to practical action.

Ancient Greek word for a type of wisdom or intelligence relevant to practical action.

In the 6th book of his Nicomachean Ethics, Plato's student and friend Aristotle famously distinguished between two intellectual virtues: sophia (wisdom) and phronesis, and described the relationship between them and other intellectual virtues.

The Rylands Papyrus is the oldest known New Testament fragment, dated to about 125.

Gospel of John

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Fourth of the four canonical gospels.

Fourth of the four canonical gospels.

The Rylands Papyrus is the oldest known New Testament fragment, dated to about 125.
Jesus giving the Farewell Discourse to his 11 remaining disciples, from the Maestà of Duccio, 1308–1311
A Syriac Christian rendition of St. John the Evangelist, from the Rabbula Gospels
Bede translating the Gospel of John on his deathbed, by James Doyle Penrose, 1902

In this sense, it was similar to the Hebrew concept of Wisdom, God's companion and intimate helper in creation.

Chokhmah

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Chokmâh (חָכְמָה ,חכמה ISO 259 ḥoḵmah or khok-maw') is the Biblical Hebrew word rendered as "wisdom" in English Bible versions (LXX σοφία sophia, Vulgate sapientia).

Jane Lead

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Christian mystic born in Norfolk, England, whose spiritual visions, recorded in a series of publications, were central in the founding and philosophy of the Philadelphian Society in London at the time.

Christian mystic born in Norfolk, England, whose spiritual visions, recorded in a series of publications, were central in the founding and philosophy of the Philadelphian Society in London at the time.

It was at this time, however, that she had her first vision of the "Virgin Sophia", the Feminine Aspect of God which is described in the Book of Proverbs in the Bible, who promised to unfold the secrets of the universe to her.

Word of God Window at St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church in Charleston, South Carolina

Logos (Christianity)

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Name or title of Jesus Christ, seen as the pre-existent second person of the Trinity.

Name or title of Jesus Christ, seen as the pre-existent second person of the Trinity.

Word of God Window at St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church in Charleston, South Carolina
In principio erat verbum, Latin for In the beginning was the Word, from the Clementine Vulgate, Gospel of John, 1:1–18.
Theophilus of Antioch

But when God wished to make all that He determined on, He begot this Word, uttered, the first-born of all creation, not Himself being emptied of the Word [Reason], but having begotten Reason, and always conversing with His Reason."He sees in the text of Psalm 33:6 the operation of the Trinity, following the early practice as identifying the Holy Spirit as the Wisdom (Sophia) of God, when he writes that "God by His own Word and Wisdom made all things; for by His Word were the heavens made, and all the host of them by the Spirit of His mouth" So he expresses in his second letter to Autolycus, "In like manner also the three days which were before the luminaries, are types of the Trinity, of God, and His Word, and His wisdom."

An image personifying the four virtues (Ballet Comique de la Reine, 1582)

Cardinal virtues

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The cardinal virtues are four virtues of mind and character in both classical philosophy and Christian theology.

The cardinal virtues are four virtues of mind and character in both classical philosophy and Christian theology.

An image personifying the four virtues (Ballet Comique de la Reine, 1582)
Fresco with allegories of the four cardinal virtues in the ‘’Assunta’’ church in Manerba del Garda.
The Tomb of Sir John Hotham, supported by figures of the cardinal virtues.
Four cardinal virtues; Louvre, Paris. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection
Prudence by Gaetano Fusali
Justice by Francesco Bonazza
Fortitude by Giuseppe Torretto
Temperance by Alvise Tagliapietra
Prudence.
Justice.
Fortitude.
Temperance.

Prudence (φρόνησις, phrónēsis; prudentia; also Wisdom, Sophia, sapientia), the ability to discern the appropriate course of action to be taken in a given situation at the appropriate time, with consideration of potential consequences.

Full-page illustration of Sapientia (Wisdom) of the 12th century. Wisdom is the central figure, between the figures of Christ (above), Zechariah, father of John the Baptist and the patriarch Jacob (below), David and Abraham, Malachi and Balaam, Isaiah and Daniel (to the left and right, respectively)

Holy Wisdom

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Concept in Christian theology.

Concept in Christian theology.

Full-page illustration of Sapientia (Wisdom) of the 12th century. Wisdom is the central figure, between the figures of Christ (above), Zechariah, father of John the Baptist and the patriarch Jacob (below), David and Abraham, Malachi and Balaam, Isaiah and Daniel (to the left and right, respectively)
Solomon and Lady Wisdom by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld, 1860
Icon of Divine Wisdom София Премудрость Божия) from St George Church in Vologda (16th century)
Reconstruction of the Hagia Sophia basilica of Constantinople
Late gothic wooden sculpture of saints Sophia, Faith, Hope and Charity (Eschau, 1470)
"Wisdom hath builded her house" (Премудрость созда Себе дом, Novgorod, 16th century).

Christian theology received the Old Testament personification of Wisdom (Hebrew Chokhmah) as well as the concept of Wisdom (Sophia) from Greek philosophy, especially Platonism.

The Harmony Society church in Old Economy Village, Pennsylvania

Harmony Society

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Christian theosophy and pietist society founded in Iptingen, Germany, in 1785.

Christian theosophy and pietist society founded in Iptingen, Germany, in 1785.

The Harmony Society church in Old Economy Village, Pennsylvania
Johann Georg Rapp (George Rapp) 1757–1847
Harmony Society building in Harmony, Pennsylvania, built in 1809.
Harmony Society buildings in New Harmony, Indiana.
The Rapp house in Old Economy Village, Pennsylvania.
Grotto (far left) and statue of Harmonia in the Harmony Society gardens in Old Economy Village, Pennsylvania.
Virgin Sophia design on doorway in Harmony, Pennsylvania, carved by Frederick Reichert Rapp (1775–1834).

They also practiced forms of Esoteric Christianity, Mysticism (Christian mysticism), and Rapp often spoke of the virgin spirit or Goddess named Sophia in his writings.

Mosaïc of the Seven Sages, Baalbeck, 3rd century A.D., National Museum of Beirut. Calliope at the center, and clockwise from top: Socrates, Chilon, Pittacus, Periander, Cleobulus (damaged section), Bias, Thales, and Solon.

Seven Sages of Greece

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Mosaïc of the Seven Sages, Baalbeck, 3rd century A.D., National Museum of Beirut. Calliope at the center, and clockwise from top: Socrates, Chilon, Pittacus, Periander, Cleobulus (damaged section), Bias, Thales, and Solon.
The Seven Sages, depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle
Fragment of a poem in which the Seven Wise Men were mentioned together, from Oxyrhynchus Papyri.

The Seven Sages (of Greece) or Seven Wise Men (Greek: οἱ ἑπτὰ σοφοί hoi hepta sophoi) was the title given by classical Greek tradition to seven philosophers, statesmen, and law-givers of the 7–6th century BC who were renowned for their wisdom.