Sophie Germain

GermainGermain, SophieHonors in number theoryMarie-Sophie GermainPrix Sophie GermainSophie Germain PrizeWork in Philosophy
Marie-Sophie Germain (1 April 1776 – 27 June 1831) was a French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher.wikipedia
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Fermat's Last Theorem

Fermat’s Last TheoremLast Theorema long-standing problem
Her work on Fermat's Last Theorem provided a foundation for mathematicians exploring the subject for hundreds of years after.
Over the next two centuries (1637–1839), the conjecture was proved for only the primes 3, 5, and 7, although Sophie Germain innovated and proved an approach that was relevant to an entire class of primes.

Sophie Germain Prize

The Academy of Sciences established the Sophie Germain Prize in her honor.
It is named after the French mathematician Sophie Germain, and comes with a prize of €8000.

Carl Friedrich Gauss

GaussCarl GaussCarl Friedrich Gauß
Despite initial opposition from her parents and difficulties presented by society, she gained education from books in her father's library, including ones by Leonhard Euler, and from correspondence with famous mathematicians such as Lagrange, Legendre, and Gauss.
Before she died, Sophie Germain was recommended by Gauss to receive her honorary degree; she never received it.

French Academy of Sciences

Académie des SciencesAcadémie Royale des SciencesAcademy of Sciences
One of the pioneers of elasticity theory, she won the grand prize from the Paris Academy of Sciences for her essay on the subject.
This meant that many women scientists were excluded, including two-time Nobel Prize winner Marie Curie, Nobel winner Irène Joliot-Curie, mathematician Sophie Germain, and many other deserving women scientists.

Mean curvature

average curvaturemeanmean radius of curvature
She used the mean curvature in her research (see Honors in number theory).
The concept was used by Sophie Germain in her work on elasticity theory.

Ernst Chladni

Chladni patternsChladniChladni plate
When Germain's correspondence with Gauss ceased, she took interest in a contest sponsored by the Paris Academy of Sciences concerning Ernst Chladni's experiments with vibrating metal plates.
Sophie Germain's answer, although rejected due to flaws, was the only entry with the correct approach.

Number theory

number theoristcombinatorial number theorytheory of numbers
Germain first became interested in number theory in 1798 when Adrien-Marie Legendre published Essai sur la théorie des nombres.
In his old age, he was the first to prove "Fermat's last theorem" for n=5 (completing work by Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, and crediting both him and Sophie Germain).

Sophie Germain prime

Maximally periodic reciprocalsSophie Germain conjecture
A Sophie Germain prime is a prime p such that
Sophie Germain primes are named after French mathematician Sophie Germain, who used them in her investigations of Fermat's Last Theorem.

Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem for specific exponents

a special casethe ''n'' = 4 case
Since the time of Sophie Germain, Fermat's Last Theorem has been separated into two cases that are proven separately.

Mathematician

mathematiciansapplied mathematicianMathematics
Marie-Sophie Germain (1 April 1776 – 27 June 1831) was a French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher.

Physicist

physicistsresearch physicistengineer and physicist
Marie-Sophie Germain (1 April 1776 – 27 June 1831) was a French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher.

Philosopher

philosopherssagephilosophical
Marie-Sophie Germain (1 April 1776 – 27 June 1831) was a French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher.

Leonhard Euler

EulerLeonard EulerEuler, Leonhard
Despite initial opposition from her parents and difficulties presented by society, she gained education from books in her father's library, including ones by Leonhard Euler, and from correspondence with famous mathematicians such as Lagrange, Legendre, and Gauss. So she pored over every book on mathematics in her father's library, even teaching herself Latin and Greek, so she could read works like those of Sir Isaac Newton and Leonhard Euler.

Joseph-Louis Lagrange

LagrangeJoseph Louis LagrangeJoseph Lagrange
Despite initial opposition from her parents and difficulties presented by society, she gained education from books in her father's library, including ones by Leonhard Euler, and from correspondence with famous mathematicians such as Lagrange, Legendre, and Gauss.

Adrien-Marie Legendre

LegendreAdrien Marie LegendreAdrien Marie Le Gendre
Despite initial opposition from her parents and difficulties presented by society, she gained education from books in her father's library, including ones by Leonhard Euler, and from correspondence with famous mathematicians such as Lagrange, Legendre, and Gauss. Germain first became interested in number theory in 1798 when Adrien-Marie Legendre published Essai sur la théorie des nombres.

Elasticity (physics)

elasticityelasticelasticity theory
One of the pioneers of elasticity theory, she won the grand prize from the Paris Academy of Sciences for her essay on the subject.

Goldsmith

goldsmithinggoldsmithsgold
According to most sources, her father, Ambroise-François, was a wealthy silk merchant, though some believe he was a goldsmith.

Bourgeoisie

bourgeoisburgherburghers
In 1789, he was elected as a representative of the bourgeoisie to the États-Généraux, which he saw change into the Constitutional Assembly.

Estates General of 1789

Estates-GeneralEstates-General of 1789Estates General
In 1789, he was elected as a representative of the bourgeoisie to the États-Généraux, which he saw change into the Constitutional Assembly.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionary
In 1789, he was elected as a representative of the bourgeoisie to the États-Généraux, which he saw change into the Constitutional Assembly.

Jean-Étienne Montucla

MontuclaJ. E. MontuclaJean Etienne Montucla
Here she found J. E. Montucla's L'Histoire des Mathématiques, and his story of the death of Archimedes intrigued her.

Archimedes

Archimedes of SyracuseArchimedeanArchimedes Heat Ray
Here she found J. E. Montucla's L'Histoire des Mathématiques, and his story of the death of Archimedes intrigued her.

Isaac Newton

NewtonSir Isaac NewtonNewtonian
So she pored over every book on mathematics in her father's library, even teaching herself Latin and Greek, so she could read works like those of Sir Isaac Newton and Leonhard Euler.