Sophist

sophistssophistrySophismsophisticsophisticalGreek sophistmodern meaningOn Sophistryprofessional teacherspublic philosophizing
A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BCE.wikipedia
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Rhetoric

rhetoricianrhetorrhetorical
Many sophists specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric, though other sophists taught subjects such as music, athletics, and mathematics.
However, even the original instructors of Western speech—the Sophists—disputed this limited view of rhetoric.

Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrate
This practice resulted in the condemnations made by Socrates through Plato in his dialogues, as well as by Xenophon in his Memorabilia and, somewhat controversially, by Aristotle.
However, in The Clouds, Aristophanes portrays Socrates as running a Sophist school with Chaerephon.

Sophia (wisdom)

SophiaWisdomSapientia
The Greek σοφός (sophos), related to the noun σοφία (sophia), had the meaning "skilled" or "wise" since the time of the poet Homer and originally was used to describe anyone with expertise in a specific domain of knowledge or craft.
Socratic skepticism is contrasted with the approach of the sophists, who are attacked in Gorgias for relying merely on eloquence.

Deipnosophistae

DeipnosophistsThe DeipnosophistsSophists at Dinner
Examples include meteorosophist, which roughly translates to "expert in celestial phenomena"; gymnosophist (or "naked sophist", a word used to refer to Indian philosophers, deipnosophist or "dinner sophist" (as in the title of Athenaeus's Deipnosophistae), and iatrosophist, a type of physician in the later Roman period.
However, the term is shaded by the harsh treatment accorded to professional teachers in Plato's Socratic dialogues, which made the English term into a pejorative.

Gorgias (dialogue)

GorgiasGorgias'' (dialogue)Rhetoricam et Poeticam
James A. Herrick wrote: "In De Oratore, Cicero blames Plato for separating wisdom and eloquence in the philosopher's famous attack on the sophists in Gorgias."
The dialogue depicts a conversation between Socrates and a small group of sophists (and other guests) at a dinner gathering.

Arete

aretēἀρετήArete (excellence)
In general, they claimed to teach arete ("excellence" or "virtue", applied to various subject areas), predominantly to young statesmen and nobility.
The only story involving Arete was originally told in the 5th century BC by the sophist Prodicus, and concerns the early life of the hero Heracles.

Libanius

LibaniosLibanius of Antioch
For instance, Libanius, Himerius, Aelius Aristides, and Fronto were sophists in this sense.
Libanius (Λιβάνιος, Libanios; c. 314 – 392 or 393) was a Greek teacher of rhetoric of the Sophist school.

Himerius

For instance, Libanius, Himerius, Aelius Aristides, and Fronto were sophists in this sense.
Himerius (c. 315 AD – c. 386 AD) was a Greek sophist and rhetorician.

Prodicus

Prodicus of Ceos
Others include Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias, Thrasymachus, Lycophron, Callicles, Antiphon, and Cratylus.
Prodicus of Ceos (, Pródikos ho Keios; c. 465 BC – c. 395 BC) was a Greek philosopher, and part of the first generation of Sophists.

Thrasymachus

Thrasymachus of Chalcedon
Others include Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias, Thrasymachus, Lycophron, Callicles, Antiphon, and Cratylus.
Thrasymachus (Θρασύμαχος Thrasýmachos; c. 459 – c. 400 BC) was a sophist of ancient Greece best known as a character in Plato's Republic.

Protagoras

Protagoras of Abdera
Protagoras is generally regarded as the first of these professional sophists. Although many sophists were apparently as religious as their contemporaries, some held atheistic or agnostic views (for example, Protagoras and Diagoras of Melos).
He is numbered as one of the sophists by Plato.

Lycophron (sophist)

LycophronLicophron
Others include Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias, Thrasymachus, Lycophron, Callicles, Antiphon, and Cratylus.
Lycophron was a sophist of Ancient Greece.

Hippias

Hippias of Elis
Others include Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias, Thrasymachus, Lycophron, Callicles, Antiphon, and Cratylus.
Hippias of Elis (Ἱππίας ὁ Ἠλεῖος; late 5th century BC) was a Greek sophist, and a contemporary of Socrates.

Philostratus

Flavius PhilostratusPhilostratus of AthensPhilostratos
The term "Second Sophistic" comes from Philostratos, who rejecting the term "New Sophistic" traced the beginnings of the movement to the orator Aeschines in the 4th century BCE.
Philostratus or Lucius Flavius Philostratus (c. 170 – 247/250), called "the Athenian", was a Greek sophist of the Roman imperial period.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
This practice resulted in the condemnations made by Socrates through Plato in his dialogues, as well as by Xenophon in his Memorabilia and, somewhat controversially, by Aristotle.
In the Apology, Socrates tries to dismiss rumors that he is a sophist and defends himself against charges of disbelief in the gods and corruption of the young.

Gorgias

Encomium of HelenGorgias of LeontiniGorgianic
Others include Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias, Thrasymachus, Lycophron, Callicles, Antiphon, and Cratylus.
Gorgias (483 – 375 BC) was an ancient Greek sophist, pre-Socratic philosopher, and rhetorician who was a native of Leontinoi in Sicily.

Sophist (dialogue)

SophistSophistesThe Sophist
It was in Plato’s dialogue, Sophist, that the first record of an attempt to answer the question “what is a sophist?” is made.
Its main theme is to identify what a sophist is and how a sophist differs from a philosopher and statesman.

Protagoras (dialogue)

ProtagorasPlato's ProtagorasProtagoras'' (dialogue)
It is unclear how accurate or fair Plato's representation of them may be; however, Protagoras and Prodicus are portrayed in a largely positive light in Protagoras (dialogue).
The main argument is between Socrates and the elderly Protagoras, a celebrated sophist and philosopher.

Callicles

Others include Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias, Thrasymachus, Lycophron, Callicles, Antiphon, and Cratylus.
Callicles is depicted as a young student of the sophist Gorgias.

Socratic method

SocraticMaieuticselenchus
Instead of giving instruction Socrates professed a self-effacing and questioning posture, exemplified by what is known as the Socratic method, although Diogenes Laërtius wrote that Protagoras—a sophist—invented this method.
In the second half of the 5th century BC, sophists were teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric to entertain, impress, or persuade an audience to accept the speaker's point of view.

Diagoras of Melos

DiagorasDiagoras "the Atheist" of Melos
Although many sophists were apparently as religious as their contemporaries, some held atheistic or agnostic views (for example, Protagoras and Diagoras of Melos).
Diagoras "the Atheist" of Melos was a Greek poet and sophist of the 5th century BC.

Casuistry

casuistcasuisticJesuitism
The term is also commonly used as a pejorative to criticize the use of clever but unsound reasoning, especially in relation to moral questions (as in sophistry).

Dissoi logoi

In one case, the Dissoi logoi, an important sophist text survived but knowledge of its author has been lost.
Silvermintz notes that while dissoi logoi purports to offer a consideration of both the absolutist and relativist positions, the latter chapters defending the sophists demonstrate its allegiance to the relativist position.

The Clouds

CloudsStrepsiadesAristophanes's same-titled comedy
In his comedic play The Clouds, Strepsiades seeks the help of Socrates (a parody of the actual philosopher) in an effort to avoid paying his debts.
Socrates is presented in The Clouds as a petty thief, a fraud and a sophist with a specious interest in physical speculations.

Doxa

opinioncommon beliefcommon opinion
However, this may involve the Greek word "doxa", which means "culturally shared belief" rather than "individual opinion".
In Plato's Gorgias (dialogue), Plato presents the sophists as wordsmiths who ensnared and used the malleable doxa of the multitude to their advantage without shame.