Sophocles

Sophoklesthree Theban playsSophocleanTheban playsDøden i TebenSofocleSofoclesSofoklesThe Oedipus CycleThe Oedipus Plays
Sophocles ( Sophoklēs, ; c. undefined 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC) is one of three ancient Greek tragedians whose plays have survived.wikipedia
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Euripides

EuripideanEuripedesMr. Euripides
His first plays were written later than or contemporary with those of Aeschylus, and earlier than or contemporary with those of Euripides. In that work, a character named Myrtilus, in a lengthy banquet speech claims that Ion of Chios writes in his book Encounters, that Sophocles loved boys as much as Euripides loved women.
Along with Aeschylus and Sophocles, he is one of the three ancient Greek tragedians for whom a significant number of plays have survived.

Tragedy

tragediestragictragedian
undefined 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC) is one of three ancient Greek tragedians whose plays have survived.
From its origins in the theatre of ancient Greece 2500 years ago, from which there survives only a fraction of the work of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, as well as many fragments from other poets; through its singular articulations in the works of Shakespeare, Lope de Vega, Jean Racine, and Friedrich Schiller to the more recent naturalistic tragedy of Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg; Samuel Beckett's modernist meditations on death, loss and suffering; Müller's postmodernist reworkings of the tragic canon, tragedy has remained an important site of cultural experimentation, negotiation, struggle, and change.

Oedipus Rex

Oedipus the KingOedipusOedipus Tyrannus
Sophocles wrote over 120 plays during the course of his life, but only seven have survived in a complete form: Ajax, Antigone, Women of Trachis, Oedipus Rex, Electra, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus. In Oedipus Rex, Oedipus is the protagonist.
Oedipus Rex, also known by its Greek title, Oedipus Tyrannus, or Oedipus the King, is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles that was first performed around 429 BC.

Oedipus at Colonus

playŒdipus Coloneus
Sophocles wrote over 120 plays during the course of his life, but only seven have survived in a complete form: Ajax, Antigone, Women of Trachis, Oedipus Rex, Electra, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus. In Oedipus at Colonus, the banished Oedipus and his daughter Antigone arrive at the town of Colonus where they encounter Theseus, King of Athens.
Oedipus at Colonus (also Oedipus Coloneus, Oidipous epi Kolōnōi) is one of the three Theban plays of the Athenian tragedian Sophocles.

Oedipus

OedipalŒdipusOedipe
The most famous tragedies of Sophocles feature Oedipus and also Antigone: they are generally known as the Theban plays, although each play was actually a part of a different tetralogy, the other members of which are now lost.
The story of Oedipus is the subject of Sophocles' tragedy Oedipus Rex, which is followed in the narrative sequence by Oedipus at Colonus and then Antigone.

Classical Athens

AthensAthenianAthenians
For almost 50 years, Sophocles was the most celebrated playwright in the dramatic competitions of the city-state of Athens that took place during the religious festivals of the Lenaea and the Dionysia.
In the classical period, Athens was a center for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Akademia and Aristotle's Lyceum, Athens was also the birthplace of Socrates, Plato, Pericles, Aristophanes, Sophocles, and many other prominent philosophers, writers and politicians of the ancient world.

Aeschylus

AischylosÆschylusEschilo
His first plays were written later than or contemporary with those of Aeschylus, and earlier than or contemporary with those of Euripides.
Euphorion won first prize in 431 BC in competition against both Sophocles and Euripides.

Colonus (Attica)

ColonusHippeios ColonusKolonos
Sophocles, the son of Sophilus, was a wealthy member of the rural deme (small community) of Hippeios Colonus in Attica, which was to become a setting for one of his plays, and he was probably born there. In Oedipus at Colonus, the banished Oedipus and his daughter Antigone arrive at the town of Colonus where they encounter Theseus, King of Athens.
Colonus or Kolonos was a deme of ancient Attica, celebrated as the deme of Sophocles, and the scene of one of the poet's tragedies, was situated ten stadia from the gate of the city, called Dipylum, near Plato's Academy and the river Cephissus.

Greek chorus

choruschorusesThe Chorus
Sophocles influenced the development of drama, most importantly by adding a third actor, thereby reducing the importance of the chorus in the presentation of the plot.
Scholars have considered Sophocles to be superior to Euripides in his choral writing.

Ion of Chios

Ion
In that work, a character named Myrtilus, in a lengthy banquet speech claims that Ion of Chios writes in his book Encounters, that Sophocles loved boys as much as Euripides loved women.
He was a contemporary of Aeschylus, Euripides and Sophocles.

Ajax (play)

AjaxAjax'' (play)Sophocles' ''Ajax
Sophocles wrote over 120 plays during the course of his life, but only seven have survived in a complete form: Ajax, Antigone, Women of Trachis, Oedipus Rex, Electra, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus.
Sophocles' Ajax, or Aias ( or ;, gen. Αἴαντος), is a Greek tragedy written in the 5th century BCE.

Electra

ElektraElectreIsabella Carrasco
Of the others, Electra shows stylistic similarities to these two plays, which suggests that it was probably written in the latter part of his career.
She is the main character in two Greek tragedies, Electra by Sophocles and Electra by Euripides.

Antigone (Sophocles play)

AntigoneAntigone (Sophocles)Antigone by Sophocles
Sophocles wrote over 120 plays during the course of his life, but only seven have survived in a complete form: Ajax, Antigone, Women of Trachis, Oedipus Rex, Electra, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus. The most famous tragedies of Sophocles feature Oedipus and also Antigone: they are generally known as the Theban plays, although each play was actually a part of a different tetralogy, the other members of which are now lost.
Antigone is a tragedy by Sophocles written in or before 441 BCE.

Dionysia

City DionysiaGreat DionysiaGreater Dionysia
For almost 50 years, Sophocles was the most celebrated playwright in the dramatic competitions of the city-state of Athens that took place during the religious festivals of the Lenaea and the Dionysia.
Most of the extant Greek tragedies, including those of Aeschylus, Euripides, and Sophocles, were performed at the Theatre of Dionysus.

Women of Trachis

The TrachiniaeThe Women of TrachisTrachiniae
Sophocles wrote over 120 plays during the course of his life, but only seven have survived in a complete form: Ajax, Antigone, Women of Trachis, Oedipus Rex, Electra, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus.
Women of Trachis (, Trachiniai; also translated as The Trachiniae) is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles.

Iophon

One of his sons, Iophon, and a grandson, also called Sophocles, also became playwrights.
Iophon (, fl. 428 BC – 405 BC) was a Greek tragic poet and son of Sophocles.

Epigoni (play)

Epigoni
He also wrote other plays having to do with Thebes, such as the Epigoni, of which only fragments have survived.
The Epigoni (, Epigonoi, "progeny") is an ancient Greek tragedy written by the Greek playwright Sophocles in the 5th century BC and based on Greek mythology.

Antigone

Antígonamythic heroineSophocles' masterpiece
Creon is also instructed to look after Oedipus' daughters Antigone and Ismene at the end of Oedipus Rex.
The story of Antigone was addressed by the fifth-century BC Greek playwright Sophocles in his Theban plays:

Athens

Athens, GreeceAthenianAthenians
In Oedipus at Colonus, the banished Oedipus and his daughter Antigone arrive at the town of Colonus where they encounter Theseus, King of Athens.
The playwrights Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides flourished in Athens during this time, as did the historians Herodotus and Thucydides, the physician Hippocrates, and the philosopher Socrates.

Pythia

Delphic OracleOracle of DelphiOracle at Delphi
Oedipus eventually learns of the Delphic Oracle's prophecy of him, that he would kill his father and marry his mother; Oedipus attempts to flee his fate without harming those he knows as his parents (at this point, he does not know that he is adopted).
Authors who mention the oracle include Aeschylus, Aristotle, Clement of Alexandria, Diodorus, Diogenes, Euripides, Herodotus, Julian, Justin, Livy, Lucan, Nepos, Ovid, Pausanias, Pindar, Plato, Plutarch, Sophocles, Strabo, Thucydides and Xenophon.

Electra (Sophocles play)

ElectraElektraSophocles
Sophocles wrote over 120 plays during the course of his life, but only seven have survived in a complete form: Ajax, Antigone, Women of Trachis, Oedipus Rex, Electra, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus.
Electra or Elektra (, Ēlektra) is a Greek tragedy by Sophocles.

Philoctetes (Sophocles play)

PhiloctetesPhilocetetesPhiloctetes (Sophocles)
Sophocles wrote over 120 plays during the course of his life, but only seven have survived in a complete form: Ajax, Antigone, Women of Trachis, Oedipus Rex, Electra, Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus.
Philoctetes (, Philoktētēs; English pronunciation:, stressed on the third syllable, -tet- ) is a play by Sophocles (Aeschylus and Euripides also each wrote a Philoctetes but theirs have not survived).

Protagonist

main characterprotagonistsmain protagonist
In Oedipus Rex, Oedipus is the protagonist.
Sophocles then wrote plays that included a third actor.

Trilogy

trilogiesfilm trilogyseries of three novels
Not only are the Theban plays not a true trilogy (three plays presented as a continuous narrative) but they are not even an intentional series and contain some inconsistencies among them.
The three Theban plays, or Oedipus cycle, by Sophocles, originating in 5th century BC, is not a true example of a trilogy because the plays were written at separate times and with different themes/purposes.

Ismene

Ismène
Creon is also instructed to look after Oedipus' daughters Antigone and Ismene at the end of Oedipus Rex.
She appears in several plays of Sophocles: at the end of Oedipus Rex, in Oedipus at Colonus and in Antigone.