Soul

soulsspirithuman soulspiritualimmortality of the soulthe soulChayahensouledlifeforceneshama
The soul, in many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, is the incorporeal essence of a living being.wikipedia
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Psyche

Psyche (disambiguation)Soulthe Soul
Soul or psyche (Ancient Greek: ψυχή psykhḗ, of ψύχειν psýkhein, "to breathe") comprises the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc. Depending on the philosophical system, a soul can either be mortal or immortal.
Psyche (Psyché in French) is the Greek term for "soul" or "spirit" .

Incorporeality

incorporealimmaterialitycorporeal
The soul, in many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, is the incorporeal essence of a living being.
It is often used in reference to souls, spirits, and God in many religions including Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

Animism

animistanimisticanimists
This belief is called animism.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.

Consciousness

consciousconsciouslyhuman consciousness
In metaphysics, the concept of "Soul" may be equated with that of "Mind" in order to refer to the consciousness and intellect of the individual. There have been differing thoughts regarding whether human embryos have souls from conception, or whether there is a point between conception and birth where the fetus acquires a soul, consciousness, and/or personhood.
Examples of the range of descriptions, definitions or explanations are: simple wakefulness, one's sense of selfhood or soul explored by "looking within", or “nothing at all”; being a metaphorical "stream" of contents, or being a mental state, mental event or mental process of the brain; having phanera or qualia and subjectivity; being the ‘something that it is like' to 'have' or 'be' it; being the “inner theatre” or the executive control system of the mind.

Anima

Anima (disambiguation)
For example, the Catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas attributed "soul" (anima) to all organisms but argued that only human souls are immortal.

Mind

mentalhuman mindmental content
In metaphysics, the concept of "Soul" may be equated with that of "Mind" in order to refer to the consciousness and intellect of the individual.
Some of the earliest recorded speculations linked mind (sometimes described as identical with soul or spirit) to theories concerning both life after death, and cosmological and natural order, for example in the doctrines of Zoroaster, the Buddha, Plato, Aristotle, and other ancient Greek, Indian and, later, Islamic and medieval European philosophers.

Afterlife

life after deathhereafterafter death
The inscription requested that his mourners commemorate his life and his afterlife with feasts "for my soul that is in this stele".
According to various ideas about the afterlife, the essential aspect of the individual that lives on after death may be some partial element, or the entire soul or spirit, of an individual, which carries with it and may confer personal identity or, on the contrary nirvana.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
Greek philosophers, such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, understood that the soul (ψυχή psūchê) must have a logical faculty, the exercise of which was the most divine of human actions.
It is probable that both were influenced by Orphism, and both believed in metempsychosis, transmigration of the soul.

Metaphysics

metaphysicalmetaphysicianmetaphysic
In metaphysics, the concept of "Soul" may be equated with that of "Mind" in order to refer to the consciousness and intellect of the individual.
Substance dualism is a classical theory in which mind and body are essentially different, with the mind having some of the attributes traditionally assigned to the soul, and which creates an immediate conceptual puzzle about how the two interact.

Anatta

anatmannon-selfanattā
According to this doctrine of anatta (Pāli; Sanskrit: anātman) – "no-self" or "no soul" – the words "I" or "me" do not refer to any fixed thing.
In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the doctrine of "non-self", that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in phenomena.

Psyche (psychology)

psychehuman psychepsyches
The English word soul is sometimes used synonymously, especially in older texts.

Intellect

intellectuallyhuman intellectintellectual
In metaphysics, the concept of "Soul" may be equated with that of "Mind" in order to refer to the consciousness and intellect of the individual.

Annihilationism

annihilationannihilationistannihilation of the wicked
This belief is traditionally accompanied by the belief that the unrighteous soul will cease to exist instead of suffering eternally (annihilationism).
Annihilationism is directly related to the doctrine of conditional immortality, the idea that a human soul is not immortal unless it is given eternal life.

Spirit

spiritsspiritual beingruach
Paul the Apostle used ψυχή (psychē) and πνεῦμα (pneuma) specifically to distinguish between the Jewish notions of נפש (nephesh) and רוח ruah (spirit) (also in the Septuagint, e.g. רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים = πνεῦμα θεοῦ = spiritus Dei = "the Spirit of God").
The concepts of spirit and soul often overlap, and both are believed to survive bodily death in some religions, and "spirit" can also have the sense of ghost, i.e. a manifestation of the spirit of a deceased person.

Universal reconciliation

universal salvationChristian universalistuniversalism
There are also beliefs in universal salvation.
In Christian theology, universal reconciliation (also called universal salvation, Christian universalism, or in context simply universalism) is the doctrine that all sinful and alienated human souls—because of divine love and mercy—will ultimately be reconciled to God.

Pre-existence

pre-mortal existencepre-mortal lifepreexistence
The major theories put forward include soul creationism, traducianism, and pre-existence.
Pre-existence, preexistence, beforelife, or premortal existence refers to the belief that each individual human soul existed before mortal conception, and at some point before birth enters or is placed into the body.

Ensoulment

soul enter the bodyacquires a soulanimation
There have been differing thoughts regarding whether human embryos have souls from conception, or whether there is a point between conception and birth where the fetus acquires a soul, consciousness, and/or personhood.
In religion, ensoulment is the moment at which a human being gains a soul.

Traducianism

traduciantraducian theory
The major theories put forward include soul creationism, traducianism, and pre-existence.
In Christian theology, traducianism is a doctrine about the origin of the soul or synonymously, spirit, holding that this immaterial aspect is transmitted through natural generation along with the body, the material aspect of human beings.

Christian mortalism

soul sleepimmortal soulmortalism
Some, following Calvin, believe in the immortality of the soul and conscious existence after death, while others, following Luther, believe in the mortality of the soul and unconscious "sleep" until the resurrection of the dead.
Christian mortalism incorporates the belief that the human soul is not naturally immortal; and may include the belief that the soul is uncomprehending during the time between bodily death and resurrection, known as the intermediate state.

Bahá'í Faith

Bahá'íBaha'iBahá'ís
The Bahá'í Faith affirms that "the soul is a sign of God, a heavenly gem whose reality the most learned of men hath failed to grasp, and whose mystery no mind, however acute, can ever hope to unravel".
The Bahá'í writings state that human beings have a "rational soul", and that this provides the species with a unique capacity to recognize God's status and humanity's relationship with its creator.

Essence

essentialessential propertiesessentially
The soul, in many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, is the incorporeal essence of a living being.
"Essence," in metaphysics, is often synonymous with the soul, and some existentialists argue that individuals gain their souls and spirits after they exist, that they develop their souls and spirits during their lifetimes.

Christian conditionalism

Conditional Immortalityconditionalisminherent immortality
Other Christians understand the soul as the life, and believe that the dead are sleeping (Christian conditionalism).
This viewpoint stands in contrast to the more popular doctrine of the "natural immortality" of the soul.

Christian views on Hell

HellperditionHell in Christian beliefs
According to a common Christian eschatology, when people die, their souls will be judged by God and determined to go to Heaven or to Hell.

Resurrection

resurrectedresurrectRisen Christ
After death, the spirit continues to live and progress in the Spirit world until the resurrection, when it is reunited with the body that once housed it.
As a religious concept, it is used in two distinct respects: a belief in the resurrection of individual souls that is current and ongoing (Christian idealism, realized eschatology), or else a belief in a singular resurrection of the dead at the end of the world.

Trichotomy (philosophy)

trichotomythreetrichotomies
Some Christians espouse a trichotomic view of humans, which characterizes humans as consisting of a body (soma), soul (psyche), and spirit (pneuma).