Sound

audiosound wavesound wavesauditorysonicacousticsound productionsound propagationacoustic energysounds
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.wikipedia
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Hearing

auditoryauralauditory perception
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.

Transmission medium

mediumtransmission mediamedia
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
For example, data can modulate sound and a transmission medium for sounds may be air, but solids and liquids may also act as the transmission medium.

Ultrasound

ultrasonicultrasonicsultrasounds
Sound waves above 20 kHz are known as ultrasound and are not perceptible by humans. Applications of acoustics are found in almost all aspects of modern society, subdisciplines include aeroacoustics, audio signal processing, architectural acoustics, bioacoustics, electro-acoustics, environmental noise, musical acoustics, noise control, psychoacoustics, speech, ultrasound, underwater acoustics, and vibration.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.

Vibration

vibrationsvibratevibrating
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. Applications of acoustics are found in almost all aspects of modern society, subdisciplines include aeroacoustics, audio signal processing, architectural acoustics, bioacoustics, electro-acoustics, environmental noise, musical acoustics, noise control, psychoacoustics, speech, ultrasound, underwater acoustics, and vibration.
In many cases, however, vibration is undesirable, wasting energy and creating unwanted sound.

Acoustics

acousticacousticianacoustical
A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician, while someone working in the field of acoustical engineering may be called an acoustical engineer.
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.

Acoustical engineering

electroacousticsacoustical designacoustic engineering
A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician, while someone working in the field of acoustical engineering may be called an acoustical engineer.
Acoustical engineering (also known as acoustic engineering) is the branch of engineering dealing with sound and vibration.

Audio engineer

engineeringengineersound engineer
An audio engineer, on the other hand, is concerned with the recording, manipulation, mixing, and reproduction of sound.
It's a creative hobby and profession where musical instruments and technology are used to produce sound for film, radio, television, music, and video games.

Audio signal processing

audio processoraudio processingsound processing
Applications of acoustics are found in almost all aspects of modern society, subdisciplines include aeroacoustics, audio signal processing, architectural acoustics, bioacoustics, electro-acoustics, environmental noise, musical acoustics, noise control, psychoacoustics, speech, ultrasound, underwater acoustics, and vibration.
Audio signals are electronic representations of sound waves—longitudinal waves which travel through air, consisting of compressions and rarefactions.

Bioacoustics

bioacousticbioacousticalacoustic biodiversity
Applications of acoustics are found in almost all aspects of modern society, subdisciplines include aeroacoustics, audio signal processing, architectural acoustics, bioacoustics, electro-acoustics, environmental noise, musical acoustics, noise control, psychoacoustics, speech, ultrasound, underwater acoustics, and vibration.
Usually it refers to the investigation of sound production, dispersion and reception in animals (including humans).

Psychoacoustics

psychoacousticpsychoacoustic modelperceptual coding
Applications of acoustics are found in almost all aspects of modern society, subdisciplines include aeroacoustics, audio signal processing, architectural acoustics, bioacoustics, electro-acoustics, environmental noise, musical acoustics, noise control, psychoacoustics, speech, ultrasound, underwater acoustics, and vibration.
Psychoacoustics is the branch of psychophysics involving the scientific study of sound perception and audiology—how humans perceive various sounds.

Musical acoustics

acousticPhysics of musicacoustics
Applications of acoustics are found in almost all aspects of modern society, subdisciplines include aeroacoustics, audio signal processing, architectural acoustics, bioacoustics, electro-acoustics, environmental noise, musical acoustics, noise control, psychoacoustics, speech, ultrasound, underwater acoustics, and vibration.
As a branch of acoustics, it is concerned with researching and describing the physics of music – how sounds are employed to make music.

Underwater acoustics

underwater soundunderwater acousticacoustic
Applications of acoustics are found in almost all aspects of modern society, subdisciplines include aeroacoustics, audio signal processing, architectural acoustics, bioacoustics, electro-acoustics, environmental noise, musical acoustics, noise control, psychoacoustics, speech, ultrasound, underwater acoustics, and vibration.
Underwater acoustics is the study of the propagation of sound in water and the interaction of the mechanical waves that constitute sound with the water, its contents and its boundaries.

Hearing range

audible rangepitch perceptionrange of human hearing
Different animal species have varying hearing ranges.
In humans, sound waves funnel into the ear via the external ear canal and reach the eardrum (tympanic membrane).

Speed of sound

subsonicsound speedsound velocity
As the source continues to vibrate the medium, the vibrations propagate away from the source at the speed of sound, thus forming the sound wave.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

Reflection (physics)

reflectionreflectedreflective
During propagation, waves can be reflected, refracted, or attenuated by the medium.
Common examples include the reflection of light, sound and water waves.

Refraction

refractedrefractiverefract
During propagation, waves can be reflected, refracted, or attenuated by the medium.
Refraction of light is the most commonly observed phenomenon, but other waves such as sound waves and water waves also experience refraction.

Sense

sensesfive sensessensory
In this case, sound is a sensation.
Hearing or audition (adjectival form: auditory) is the sense of sound perception.

Attenuation

attenuateattenuatedattenuating
During propagation, waves can be reflected, refracted, or attenuated by the medium.
For instance, dark glasses attenuate sunlight, lead attenuates X-rays, and water and air attenuate both light and sound at variable attenuation rates.

Environmental noise

sound environmentAnthropogenic
Applications of acoustics are found in almost all aspects of modern society, subdisciplines include aeroacoustics, audio signal processing, architectural acoustics, bioacoustics, electro-acoustics, environmental noise, musical acoustics, noise control, psychoacoustics, speech, ultrasound, underwater acoustics, and vibration.
Sound propagation outdoors is subject to meteorological effects (e.g. wind, temperature) that affect the distance, speed, and direction with which environmental noise travels from a source to a listener.

Wave

travelling wavewavestraveling wave
For example, sound waves in air are variations of the local pressure that propagate by collisions between gas molecules.

Polarization (waves)

polarizationpolarizedpolarized light
Transverse waves, also known as shear waves, have the additional property, polarization, and are not a characteristic of sound waves.
In contrast, in longitudinal waves, such as sound waves in a liquid or gas, the displacement of the particles in the oscillation is always in the direction of propagation, so these waves do not exhibit polarization.

Transverse wave

transversetransverse wavesshear waves
Transverse waves, also known as shear waves, have the additional property, polarization, and are not a characteristic of sound waves. Sound can propagate through a medium such as air, water and solids as longitudinal waves and also as a transverse wave in solids (see Longitudinal and transverse waves, below). Longitudinal sound waves are waves of alternating pressure deviations from the equilibrium pressure, causing local regions of compression and rarefaction, while transverse waves (in solids) are waves of alternating shear stress at right angle to the direction of propagation.
The standard example of a longitudinal wave is a sound wave or "pressure wave" in gases, liquids, or solids, whose oscillations cause compression and expansion of the material through which the wave is propagating.

Sound pressure

sound pressure levelSPLacoustic pressure
Sound pressure is the difference, in a given medium, between average local pressure and the pressure in the sound wave.
Sound pressure or acoustic pressure is the local pressure deviation from the ambient (average or equilibrium) atmospheric pressure, caused by a sound wave.

Rarefaction

rarefiedrarefied airexpansion
Longitudinal sound waves are waves of alternating pressure deviations from the equilibrium pressure, causing local regions of compression and rarefaction, while transverse waves (in solids) are waves of alternating shear stress at right angle to the direction of propagation.
Like compression, which can travel in waves (sound waves, for instance), rarefaction waves also exist in nature.

Diaphragm (acoustics)

diaphragmmembranespeaker cone
The sound waves are generated by a sound source, such as the vibrating diaphragm of a stereo speaker.
In a dynamic loudspeaker, a diaphragm is the thin, semi-rigid membrane attached to the voice coil, which moves in a magnetic gap, vibrating the diaphragm, and producing sound.