Sound-on-film

optical soundtracksoundopticaloptical soundfilm soundoptical recordingoptical soundtrackssound tracks16mm and 35mm sound35mm film
Sound-on-film is a class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying picture is physically recorded onto photographic film, usually, but not always, the same strip of film carrying the picture.wikipedia
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Sound film

talkietalkiessound
Sound-on-film is a class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying picture is physically recorded onto photographic film, usually, but not always, the same strip of film carrying the picture. Fox/Western Electric (Westrex) Movietone, are variable-density formats of sound film. (No longer used, but still playable on modern 35 mm projectors.)
Innovations in sound-on-film led to the first commercial screening of short motion pictures using the technology, which took place in 1923.

Optical sound

opticalexciterfilm soundtrack
Sound-on-film processes can either record an analog sound track or digital sound track, and may record the signal either optically or magnetically.
Originally developed for military purposes, the technology first saw widespread use in the 1920s as a sound-on-film format for motion pictures.

Movietone sound system

MovietoneFox MovietoneMovietone system
Fox/Western Electric (Westrex) Movietone, are variable-density formats of sound film. (No longer used, but still playable on modern 35 mm projectors.)
The Movietone sound system is an optical sound-on-film method of recording sound for motion pictures that guarantees synchronization between sound and picture.

RCA Photophone

RCAown sound-on-film processPhotophone
RCA Photophone, a variable-area format now universally used for optical analog soundtracks—since the late 1970s, usually with a Dolby encoding matrix.
RCA Photophone was the trade name given to one of four major competing technologies that emerged in the American film industry in the late 1920s for synchronizing electrically recorded audio to a motion picture image.

Tri-Ergon

Hans Vogt
Tri-Ergon, the patent of this Berlin based company was bought by Fox in 1926.
The Tri-Ergon sound-on-film system was developed from around 1919 by three German inventors, Josef Engl (1893–1942), Joseph Massolle (1889–1957), and Hans Vogt (1890–1979).

Sound-on-disc

ChronophonephonoscènesVictor disc
Earlier technologies were sound-on-disc, meaning the film's soundtrack would be on a separate phonograph record.
Sound-on-film

35 mm film

35 mm35mm35mm film
Earlier processes, used on 70 mm film prints and special presentations of 35 mm film prints, recorded sound magnetically on ferric oxide tracks bonded to the film print, outside the sprocket holes.
The first sound features were released in 1926–27, and while Warner Bros. was using synchronized phonograph discs (sound-on-disc), Fox placed the soundtrack in an optical record directly on the film (sound-on-film) on a strip between the sprocket holes and the image frame.

Phonofilm

DeForest PhonofilmDe Forest Phonofilms
Phonofilm, patented by Lee De Forest in 1919, defunct by 1929
Phonofilm is an optical sound-on-film system developed by inventors Lee de Forest and Theodore Case in the 1920s.

Fox Film

Fox Film CorporationFoxFox studios
Fox/Western Electric (Westrex) Movietone, are variable-density formats of sound film. (No longer used, but still playable on modern 35 mm projectors.)
With the introduction of sound technology, Fox moved to acquire the rights to a sound-on-film process.

Fantasound

Fantasound. This was a system developed by RCA and Disney Studios with a multi-channel soundtrack recorded on a separate strip of film from the picture. It was used for the initial release of Walt Disney's Fantasia (1940)
In the sessions, 33 microphones placed around the orchestra captured the music which was transferred onto eight optical recording machines located in the hall's basement.

Joseph Tykociński-Tykociner

zetetics
Joseph Tykociński-Tykociner
Joseph Tykociński-Tykociner (also known as Joseph T. Tykociner; October 5, 1877 – June 11, 1969) was a Polish engineer and a pioneer of sound-on-film technology.

Fantasia (1940 film)

FantasiaSorcerer's ApprenticeThe Sorcerer's Apprentice
Fantasound. This was a system developed by RCA and Disney Studios with a multi-channel soundtrack recorded on a separate strip of film from the picture. It was used for the initial release of Walt Disney's Fantasia (1940)
In the recording sessions, thirty-three microphones were placed around the orchestra that captured the music onto eight optical sound recording machines placed in the hall's basement.

Charles A. Hoxie

Charles A. Hoxie
During his career (1912-32) at General Electric, he devised a sound-on-film process to put recordings on film.

Lee de Forest

DeForestLee DeForestDe Forest
Phonofilm, patented by Lee De Forest in 1919, defunct by 1929
In 1921 de Forest ended most of his radio research in order to concentrate on developing an optical sound-on-film process called Phonofilm.

Eugene Augustin Lauste

Eugene Lauste
Eugène Lauste
In 1904 he prepared his first sound-on-film model.

List of film sound systems

film sound systemKinoplasticon
List of film sound systems
Sound-on-film

Analog signal

analoganalogueanalogue signal
Sound-on-film processes can either record an analog sound track or digital sound track, and may record the signal either optically or magnetically.

Digital data

digitaldigital informationdigitally
Sound-on-film processes can either record an analog sound track or digital sound track, and may record the signal either optically or magnetically.

Magnetism

magneticmagneticsmagnetically
Sound-on-film processes can either record an analog sound track or digital sound track, and may record the signal either optically or magnetically.

Phonograph record

vinyl7LP
Earlier technologies were sound-on-disc, meaning the film's soundtrack would be on a separate phonograph record.

Release print

printprintsfilm print
The most prevalent current method of recording analogue sound on a film print is by stereo variable-area (SVA) recording, a technique first used in the mid-1970s as Dolby Stereo.

Dolby Stereo

70mm DolbyDolby ADolby Stereo 70 mm Six Track
The most prevalent current method of recording analogue sound on a film print is by stereo variable-area (SVA) recording, a technique first used in the mid-1970s as Dolby Stereo.

Photodiode

phototransistorphotodiodesphoto diode
The image on the small slice of exposed track modulates the intensity of the light, which is collected by a photosensitive element: a photocell, a photodiode or CCD.

Charge-coupled device

CCDCCDsCCD camera
The image on the small slice of exposed track modulates the intensity of the light, which is collected by a photosensitive element: a photocell, a photodiode or CCD.

Light-emitting diode

LEDLEDslight emitting diodes
Because traditional incandescent exciter lamps produce copious amounts of infra-red light, and cyan tracks do not absorb infra-red light, this change has required theaters to replace the incandescent exciter lamp with a complementary colored red LED or laser.