Sound recording and reproduction

recordingrecordedrecordingsaudiosound recordingrecordaudio recordingproductionProducedsound and music recordings
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.wikipedia
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Phonograph

turntablesgramophoneturntable
Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that senses changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and records them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record).
The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound.

Digital audio

digital musicdigitalaudio
Digital recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by the process of sampling. A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is amplified and connected to a loudspeaker to produce sound.
Digital audio is also the name for the entire technology of sound recording and reproduction using audio signals that have been encoded in digital form.

Digital recording

digitaldigitallydigitally recorded
The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording. Between the invention of the phonograph in 1877 and the first commercial digital recordings in the early 1970s, arguably the most important milestone in the history of sound recording was the introduction of what was then called electrical recording, in which a microphone was used to convert the sound into an electrical signal that was amplified and used to actuate the recording stylus.

Magnetic tape

tapetapesanalog tape
In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, which is then converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it.
Magnetic tape revolutionized sound recording and reproduction and broadcasting.

Acoustics

acousticacousticianacoustical
Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that senses changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and records them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record).
Sound recording and the telephone played important roles in a global transformation of society.

Phonograph cylinder

wax cylinderwax cylinderscylinder
The first practical sound recording and reproduction device was the mechanical phonograph cylinder, invented by Thomas Edison in 1877 and patented in 1878.
Phonograph cylinders are the earliest commercial medium for recording and reproducing sound.

Thomas Edison

Thomas Alva EdisonEdisonThomas A. Edison
The first practical sound recording and reproduction device was the mechanical phonograph cylinder, invented by Thomas Edison in 1877 and patented in 1878.
He developed many devices in fields such as electric power generation, mass communication, sound recording, and motion pictures.

Single (music)

singlesingles7" single
The short-playing but convenient 7 in 45 rpm microgroove vinyl single was introduced by RCA Victor in 1949.
In the music industry, a single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album.

Microphone

microphonescondenser microphonedynamic microphone
Between the invention of the phonograph in 1877 and the first commercial digital recordings in the early 1970s, arguably the most important milestone in the history of sound recording was the introduction of what was then called electrical recording, in which a microphone was used to convert the sound into an electrical signal that was amplified and used to actuate the recording stylus.
Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, sound recording, two-way radios, megaphones, radio and television broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors.

Amplifier

amplifiersamplificationelectronic amplifier
These included improved microphones and auxiliary devices such as electronic filters, all dependent on electronic amplification to be of practical use in recording.
It made possible long distance telephone lines, public address systems, radio broadcasting, talking motion pictures, practical audio recording, radar, television, and the first computers.

Ludwig Blattner

BlattnerphoneLouis Blattner
The following year, Ludwig Blattner began work that eventually produced the Blattnerphone, enhancing it to use steel tape instead of wire.
Ludwig Blattner (1881 – 30 October 1935) was a German-born inventor, film producer, director and studio owner in the United Kingdom, and developer of one of the earliest sound recording devices.

Wire recording

wire recorderwire recordersmagnetic wire recorder
This period also saw several other historic developments including the introduction of the first practical magnetic sound recording system, the magnetic wire recorder, which was based on the work of Danish inventor Valdemar Poulsen.
Wire recording or magnetic wire recording was the first early magnetic recording technology, an analog type of audio storage in which a magnetic recording is made on a thin 37 gauge (0.004") steel wire. The first crude magnetic recorder was invented in 1898 by Valdemar Poulsen. The first magnetic recorder to be made commercially available anywhere was the Telegraphone, manufactured by the American Telegraphone Company, Springfield, Massachusetts.

Emile Berliner

Emil BerlinerBerlinerBerliner, Emile
The next major technical development was the invention of the gramophone record, generally credited to Emile Berliner and patented in 1887, though others had demonstrated similar disk apparatus earlier, most notably Alexander Graham Bell in 1881.
In 1886 Berliner began experimenting with methods of sound recording.

Harmony Records

HarmonyHarmony HS 11200
By 1929 only the budget label Harmony was still issuing new recordings made by the old acoustical process.
Harmony's records were acoustically recorded until 1929, although electrical recording dominated the industry.

Musique concrète

Groupe de Recherches Musicalesmusique concreteconcrete music
Tape made possible the first sound recordings totally created by electronic means, opening the way for the bold sonic experiments of the Musique Concrète school and avant garde composers like Karlheinz Stockhausen, which in turn led to the innovative pop music recordings of artists such as Frank Zappa, The Beatles, and The Beach Boys.
Musique concrète is a type of music composition that utilizes recorded sounds as raw material.

Delay (audio effect)

delaytape echotape delay
Innovations like multitracking and tape echo allowed radio programs and advertisements to be produced to a high level of complexity and sophistication.
Delay is an audio effect and an effects unit which records an input signal to an audio storage medium, and then plays it back after a period of time.

Alan Blumlein

Alan Dower BlumleinBlumleinA. D. Blumlein
In 1931, Alan Blumlein, a British electronics engineer working for EMI, designed a way to make the sound of an actor in a film follow his movement across the screen.
Alan Dower Blumlein (29 June 1903 – 7 June 1942) was an English electronics engineer, notable for his many inventions in telecommunications, sound recording, stereophonic sound, television and radar.

Sound

audiosound wavesound waves
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects.

Fidelipac

cartsbroadcast cartridgeendless loop cartridge
The combined impact with innovations such as the endless loop broadcast cartridge led to significant changes in the pacing and production style of radio program content and advertising.
The Fidelipac, commonly known as a "NAB cartridge" or simply "cart", is a magnetic tape sound recording format, used for radio broadcasting for playback of material over the air such as radio commercials, jingles, station identifications, and music.

Fantasound

The 1941 release of Fantasia used the "Fantasound" sound system.
Fantasound was a stereophonic sound reproduction system developed by engineers of Walt Disney studios and RCA for Walt Disney's animated film Fantasia, the first commercial film released in stereo.

EMI

EMI MusicEMI RecordsEMI Music Canada
In 1931, Alan Blumlein, a British electronics engineer working for EMI, designed a way to make the sound of an actor in a film follow his movement across the screen.
Electric and Musical Industries Ltd was formed in March 1931 by the merger of the Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company, with its "His Master's Voice" record label, firms that have a history extending back to the origins of recorded sound.

Transistor

transistorstransistorizedsilicon transistor
Refined versions of this tube were the basis of all electronic sound systems until the commercial introduction of the first transistor-based audio devices in the mid-1950s.
From mobile phones to televisions, vast numbers of products include amplifiers for sound reproduction, radio transmission, and signal processing.

Multitrack recording

4-trackfour-trackmultitrack
Within a few years of the introduction of the first commercial tape recorder—the Ampex 200 model, launched in 1948—American musician-inventor Les Paul had invented the first multitrack tape recorder, ushering in another technical revolution in the recording industry.
Multitrack recording (MTR)—also known as multitracking, double tracking, or tracking—is a method of sound recording developed in 1955 that allows for the separate recording of multiple sound sources or of sound sources recorded at different times to create a cohesive whole.

Cassette tape

cassetteCScompact cassette
The next important innovation was small cartridge-based tape systems, of which the compact cassette, commercialized by the Philips electronics company in 1964, is the best known.
The Compact Cassette or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the cassette tape or simply tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback.

Loudspeaker

loudspeakersspeakerspeakers
A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is amplified and connected to a loudspeaker to produce sound.
First, for a reasonable number of bits (required for adequate sound reproduction quality), the physical size of a speaker system becomes very large.