Sourdough

sourdough breadsourdough starterlevainsour doughnatural leavenSan Francisco sourdoughAlaskan Sourdoughleavenlevain breadnatural wild yeasts
Sourdough bread is made by the fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeast.wikipedia
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Bread

breadsbreadmakingleavened bread
Sourdough bread has a mildly sour taste not present in most breads made with baker's yeast, and better inherent keeping qualities than other breads due to the lactic acid produced by the lactobacilli.
Bread may be leavened by processes such as reliance on naturally occurring sourdough microbes, chemicals, industrially produced yeast, or high-pressure aeration.

San Francisco

San Francisco, CaliforniaSan Francisco, CACity and County of San Francisco
French bakers brought sourdough techniques to Northern California during the California Gold Rush, and it remains a part of the culture of San Francisco today.
With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.

Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis

The "celebrated" San Francisco sourdough is a white bread characterized by a pronounced sourness, and indeed the strain of Lactobacillus in sourdough starters is named Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, alongside the sourdough yeast Candida milleri found in the same cultures.
Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (formerly L. sanfrancisco) is a species of lactic acid bacteria which, through the production mainly of lactic and acetic acids, helps give sourdough bread its characteristic taste.

Baker's yeast

yeastbaking yeastbudding yeast
Sourdough bread has a mildly sour taste not present in most breads made with baker's yeast, and better inherent keeping qualities than other breads due to the lactic acid produced by the lactobacilli.
Saccharomyces Exiguus (also known as S. minor) is a wild yeast found on plants, fruits, and grains that is occasionally used for baking; however, in general, it is not used in a pure form but comes from being propagated in a sourdough starter.

Desem

Firm starters (such as the Flemish Desem starter, which may be buried in a large container of flour to prevent drying out) tend to be more resource-intensive than wet ones.
Desem (Dutch for "leaven") is a type of sourdough starter made from whole wheat, spelt or other flours (amaranth or kamut) and water, inoculated by wild yeasts and bacteria, traditionally used in Belgium to make healthy, nutrient-rich bread.

Panettone

panetone
In the southern part of Europe, where panettone was originally made with sourdough, sourdough has become less common in recent times; it has been replaced by the faster-growing baker's yeast, sometimes supplemented with longer fermentation rests to allow for some bacterial activity to build flavor.
It is made during a long process that involves curing the dough, which is acidic, similar to sourdough.

Leavening agent

leavenedunleavenedleavening
It is one of the principal means of biological leavening in bread baking, the others using cultivated forms of yeast. Baker's yeast is not useful as a leavening agent for rye bread, as rye does not contain enough gluten.
sourdough starter

Dough

Unleavened doughYeast doughaiysh
Sourdough bread is made by the fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeast.
For yeast-based and sponge (such as sourdough) breads, a common production technique is the dough is mixed, kneaded, and then left to rise.

Pre-ferment

starterprefermentmother dough
The preparation of sourdough begins with a pre-ferment (the "starter" or "leaven", also known as the "chief", "chef", "head", "mother" or "sponge"), a fermented mixture of flour and water, containing a colony of microorganisms including wild yeast and lactobacilli. Pg. 6: "It is woefully common at this point in the mix of inexperienced bakers to conclude that the dough is too wet and to add flour. What seems to be excessively loose dough early in the mix, however, will soon transform once the second phase of mixing--gluten development--is accomplished. Extra flour added early on has ruined many a dough. Only by feeling the dough throughout the mixing process can we understand--through our hands--the considerable change from loose and shaggy to firm, elastic, and developed."
A pre-ferment and a longer fermentation in the bread-making process have several benefits: there is more time for yeast, enzyme and, if sourdough, bacterial actions on the starch and proteins in the dough; this in turn improves the keeping time of the baked bread, and it creates greater complexities of flavor.

Rye bread

ryeblack breadbread
Baker's yeast is not useful as a leavening agent for rye bread, as rye does not contain enough gluten.
Instead, addition of naturally acidic Lactobacillus "sourdough" cultures lowers bread pH, facilitating growth of an acid-tolerant yeast strain, and helping gelatinize starches in the dough matrix.

Yeast

yeastsbrewer's yeastbudding yeast
Sourdough bread is made by the fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeast. The preparation of sourdough begins with a pre-ferment (the "starter" or "leaven", also known as the "chief", "chef", "head", "mother" or "sponge"), a fermented mixture of flour and water, containing a colony of microorganisms including wild yeast and lactobacilli. Pg. 6: "It is woefully common at this point in the mix of inexperienced bakers to conclude that the dough is too wet and to add flour. What seems to be excessively loose dough early in the mix, however, will soon transform once the second phase of mixing--gluten development--is accomplished. Extra flour added early on has ruined many a dough. Only by feeling the dough throughout the mixing process can we understand--through our hands--the considerable change from loose and shaggy to firm, elastic, and developed." Sourdough is a stable culture of lactic acid bacteria and yeast in a mixture of flour and water.
When a sourdough starter is used, flour and water are added instead of sugar; this is referred to as proofing the sponge.

Amish friendship bread

Amish friendship bread uses a sourdough starter that includes sugar and milk.
Amish friendship bread is a type of bread or cake made from a sourdough starter that is often shared in a manner similar to a chain letter.

Pumpernickel

pumpernickel breadblack breadbread
German pumpernickel is traditionally made from a sourdough starter, although modern pumpernickel loaves often use commercial yeasts, sometimes spiked with citric acid or lactic acid to inactivate the amylases in the rye flour.
Pumpernickel is a typically heavy, slightly sweet rye bread traditionally made with sourdough starter and coarsely ground rye.

Injera

Mittadcanjeelocanjeero
In Ethiopia, teff flour is fermented to make injera.
Injera, Tigrinya & Amharic: እንጀራ ; is a sourdough-risen flatbread with a slightly spongy texture.

Barm

Sourdough remained the usual form of leavening down into the European Middle Ages until being replaced by barm from the beer brewing process, and then later purpose-cultured yeast.
Barm, as a leaven, has also been made from ground millet combined with must out of wine-tubs and is sometimes used in English baking as a synonym for a natural leaven.

Candida humilis

C. humilis
The most common yeast species in sourdough are Kazachstania exigua (Saccharomyces exiguous), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida milleri, and Candida humilis.
It commonly occurs in sourdough and kefir cultures, along with different species of lactic acid bacteria (e.g., Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis).

History of California bread

artisanal bakersBread Revolution
History of California bread
The history of California bread as a prominent factor in the field of bread baking dates from the days of the California Gold Rush around 1849, encompassing the development of sourdough bread in San Francisco.

North Slavic fermented cereal soups

żurekŻurkyselo
Kyselo, Czech soup made from sourdough.
In West Slavic countries, as well as in Hungary, fermented cereals, such as rye or wheat, or sourdough, are used to make soups.

List of microorganisms found in sourdough

List of microorganisms found in sourdough
Sourdough is a mixture of flour and water inhabited by a symbiosis of Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts.

Rugbrød

rye bread
Danish rugbrød (rye bread) is a dense, dark bread best known from its use in the Danish smørrebrød (open-faced sandwiches).
Sourdough is almost always used for the base dough, as commercial yeasts are unsuitable.

Boudin Bakery

Boudin at the Wharf
Boudin Bakery
Boudin Bakery (Anglicized pronunciation: "boo-DEEN") is a bakery based in San Francisco, California, known for its sourdough bread (trademarked as "The Original San Francisco Sourdough").

Kazachstania exigua

Kazachstania exigua (Saccharomyces exiguous)
The most common yeast species in sourdough are Kazachstania exigua (Saccharomyces exiguous), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida milleri, and Candida humilis.
It is one of the yeast species used in the production of sourdough.

Flour

farinaceouswhite flourmeal
Sourdough is a stable culture of lactic acid bacteria and yeast in a mixture of flour and water.
* Rye flour is used to bake the traditional sourdough breads of Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Russia, Czech Republic, Poland and Scandinavia.

Lactobacillus

lactobacilliDöderlein vaginal bacillusLactic acid bacteria
Sourdough bread is made by the fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeast. The preparation of sourdough begins with a pre-ferment (the "starter" or "leaven", also known as the "chief", "chef", "head", "mother" or "sponge"), a fermented mixture of flour and water, containing a colony of microorganisms including wild yeast and lactobacilli. Pg. 6: "It is woefully common at this point in the mix of inexperienced bakers to conclude that the dough is too wet and to add flour. What seems to be excessively loose dough early in the mix, however, will soon transform once the second phase of mixing--gluten development--is accomplished. Extra flour added early on has ruined many a dough. Only by feeling the dough throughout the mixing process can we understand--through our hands--the considerable change from loose and shaggy to firm, elastic, and developed."
Sourdough bread is made either spontaneously, by taking advantage of the bacteria naturally present in flour, or by using a "starter culture", which is a symbiotic culture of yeast and lactic acid bacteria growing in a water and flour medium.

Lactic acid

lactatelacticblood lactate
Sourdough bread has a mildly sour taste not present in most breads made with baker's yeast, and better inherent keeping qualities than other breads due to the lactic acid produced by the lactobacilli. German pumpernickel is traditionally made from a sourdough starter, although modern pumpernickel loaves often use commercial yeasts, sometimes spiked with citric acid or lactic acid to inactivate the amylases in the rye flour.
Lactic acid is also responsible for the sour flavor of sourdough bread.