South Africa

Migrations that formed the modern Rainbow nation
Mapungubwe Hill, the site of the former capital of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias planting the cross at Cape Point after being the first to successfully round the Cape of Good Hope.
Charles Davidson Bell's 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeck, who founded the first European settlement in South Africa, arrives in Table Bay in 1652
Depiction of a Zulu attack on a Boer camp in February 1838
The First Boer War was a rebellion of Boers against the British rule in the Transvaal that re-established their independence.
"For use by white persons" – apartheid sign in English and Afrikaans
FW de Klerk and Nelson Mandela shake hands in January 1992
The Central Plateau edged by the Great Escarpment, and the Cape Fold Belt
The thick line traces the Great Escarpment bordering the central plateau; the line's red portion is the Drakensberg. The Escarpment rises to its highest, over 3000 m, where it separates KwaZulu-Natal and Lesotho. No regions on the map have well-defined borders except where the Escarpment or a mountain range forms a clear dividing line
Drakensberg, the eastern and highest portion of the Great Escarpment which surrounds the east, south and western borders of the central plateau of Southern Africa
Spring flowers in Namaqualand
Köppen climate types of South Africa
South African giraffes, Kruger National Park
Subtropical forest near Durban
Lowveld vegetation of the Kruger National Park
Cape Floral Region Protected Areas
Union Buildings in Pretoria, seat of the executive
Houses of Parliament in Cape Town, seat of the legislature
Constitutional Court in Johannesburg
Soweto Pride 2012 participants protest against violence against lesbians. The country has strong human rights laws but some groups are still discriminated against. It is the first country in Africa to recognise same sex marriage
SANDF soldiers
Provinces of South Africa
Change in per capita GDP of South Africa, 1700–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Annual per capita personal income by race group in South Africa relative to white levels
A proportional representation of South Africa exports, 2019
The Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) is the largest stock exchange on the African continent
Workers packing pears for export in the Ceres Valley, Western Cape
Mark Shuttleworth in space
Schoolchildren in Mitchell's Plain
Life expectancy in select Southern African countries, 1950–2019. HIV/AIDS has caused a fall in life expectancy.
Rock painting of an eland, Drakensberg
Olive Schreiner
A plate of freshly prepared Babotie, a meat-based meal which originated within South Africa.
Kagiso Rabada, South African cricketer
The Springboks in a bus parade after winning the 2007 Rugby World Cup

Southernmost country in Africa.

- South Africa

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Landlocked country in Southern Africa.

Landlocked country in Southern Africa.

The 'Two Rhino' painting at Tsodilo, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
German map of 1905 still showing the undivided Bechuanaland area
Sechele I who led a Batswana Merafe Coalition against Boers in 1852
3 Dikgosi Monument: Khama III, Sebele I & Bathoen I who negotiated a Protectorate
Postage stamp of British-ruled Bechuanaland from 1960
Botswana map of Köppen climate classification.
Zebras roaming the Okavango Basin
The current president, Mokgweetsi Masisi
High Court of Botswana
Botswana soldiers board a Botswana Defence Force plane to Mozambique, July 2021
New Gaborone Central Business District
Graphical depiction of Botswana's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories.
GDP per capita of Botswana, 1950 to 2018
GDP per capita (current), % of world average, 1960–2012; Zimbabwe, South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique
Kazungula Bridge, connecting Botswana and Zambia
Population pyramid 2016
Gaborone Hindu Temple
Unity Dow, author of Far and Beyon, The Screaming of the Innocent and Heavens May Fall
Francistown Stadium
Physicist in a Lab at Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Deaftronics Solar Powered Hearing Aid
Cubesat miniaturized satellite
Scottish Livingstone Hospital in Molepolole
Life expectancy in select Southern African countries, 1950–2019. HIV/AIDS has caused a fall in life expectancy.
Tourist on a safari boat cruise

It is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, and Zimbabwe to the northeast.


Country in Southern Africa.

Country in Southern Africa.

San people are Namibia's oldest indigenous inhabitants.
German church and monument to colonists in Windhoek, Namibia.
Map depicting the Police Zone (in tan) and tribal homelands (in red) as they existed in 1978. Self-governing tribal homelands appear as tan with red stripes.
Foreign Observer identification badge issued during the 1989 Namibian election
South African troops patrol the border region for PLAN insurgents, 1980s.
Sand dunes in the Namib, Namibia
Shaded relief map of Namibia
Namibia map of Köppen climate classification zones
Fish River Canyon
Namibia is primarily a large desert and semi-desert plateau.
Quivertree Forest, Bushveld
Regions of Namibia
Historical GDP per capita development in southern african countries, since 1950
Downtown Windhoek
The B2 between Swakopmund and Walvis Bay, Namibia
Welcoming sign of the Burgsdorf farm in Hardap
An example of Namibian wildlife, the plains zebra, is one focus of tourism.
Population density in Namibia by regions (census 2011)
Himba people in northern Namibia
Afrikaner children in Namibia
Lutheran church in Swakopmund
The Namibia rugby team
Secondary school students

It shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and east.


Towers of Great Zimbabwe.
A Matabele kraal, as depicted by William Cornwallis Harris, 1836
The Union Jack was raised over Fort Salisbury on 13 September 1890
The Battle of the Shangani on 25 October 1893
1953 stamp with the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II
Ian Smith signing the Unilateral Declaration of Independence on 11 November 1965 with his cabinet in audience.
Bishop Abel Muzorewa signs the Lancaster House Agreement seated next to British Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington.
Trends in Zimbabwe's Multidimensional Poverty Index, 1970–2010.
Map showing the food insecurity in Zimbabwe in June 2008
Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe attended the Independence Day celebrations in South Sudan in July 2011
The Zambezi River in the Mana Pools National Park.
Zimbabwe map of Köppen climate classification.
An elephant at a water hole in Hwange National Park.
Parliament of Zimbabwe in Harare
Supporters of the Movement for Democratic Change in 2005.
The flag of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces.
A demonstration in London against Robert Mugabe. Protests are discouraged by Zimbabwean police in Zimbabwe.
Administrative divisions of Zimbabwe
Historical GDP per capita development in southern african countries, since 1950
A proportional representation of Zimbabwe exports, 2019
A market in Mbare, Harare
The GDP per capita (current), compared to neighbouring countries (world average = 100).
Victoria Falls, the end of the upper Zambezi and beginning of the middle Zambezi.
Scientific research output in terms of publications in Southern Africa, cumulative totals by field, 2008–2014. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), Figure 20.6
Scientific publication trends in the most productive SADC countries, 2005–2014. Source: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (2015), data from Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Science Citation Index Expanded
A n'anga (Traditional Healer) of the Shona people, holding a kudu horn trumpet
A Tonga woman pleating a basket
"Reconciliation", a stone sculpture by Amos Supuni
A meal of sadza (right), greens, and goat offal. The goat's small intestines are wrapped around small pieces of large intestines before cooking.
Raw boerewors
Zimbabwe women's national football team at the 2016 Olympic Games
Baden-Powell's drawing of Chief of Scouts Burnham, Matobo Hills, 1896
Traditional Zimbabwe Bird design
Life expectancy in select Southern African countries, 1950–2019. HIV/AIDS has caused a fall in life expectancy.
Mother of Peace AIDS orphanage, Mutoko (2005)
Map showing the spread of cholera in and around Zimbabwe put together from several sources.
St George's College, Harare was established in 1896 by a French Jesuit
Catholic church in Harare

Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in Southeast Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the south-west, Zambia to the north, and Mozambique to the east.


Landlocked country in Southern Africa.

Landlocked country in Southern Africa.

A 19th-century Swazi container, carved in wood
Swaziland in Southern Africa, 1896
Topographic map of Eswatini
Landscape in Eswatini
Grewia villosa
Mswati III has been king of Eswatini since 1986.
Swazi army officers
A proportional representation of Swazi exports
Central Bank in Mbabane
Eswatini is part of the Southern African Customs Union (green).
Eswatini's population in thousands (1950–2021)
A rural primary school in Eswatini
King Mswati III at the reed dance festival where he will choose his next wife
Princess Sikhanyiso Dlamini (left) and Temtsimba Dlamini (right) at the reed dance (umhlanga) festival 2006
A traditional Swazi homestead
Swazi warriors at the incwala ceremony

It is bordered by Mozambique to its northeast and South Africa to its north, west, south, and southeast.


King Moshoeshoe I with his Ministers
1959 stamps for the Basutoland National Council
Lesotho mountain village
Embassy in Washington, D.C., United States
The Parliament building in Maseru
Districts and Cities of Lesotho
Topographic map of the region, showing Lesotho situated on the highest peaks of Southern Africa
The Afriski resort in the Maloti Mountains of Lesotho
Hills in Lesotho
Aloe polyphylla
Sani Pass on the border is a popular tourist attraction.
Primary school class
St.Michael's Cathedral
National University of Lesotho
LDF Deputy Commander briefing soldiers
Women wearing Basotho blankets
Shweshwe clothing

Lesotho, officially the Kingdom of Lesotho (Naha ea Lesotho), is a landlocked country enclaved by South Africa.

Position of Lesotho within South Africa

Enclave and exclave

Territory that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state or entity.

Territory that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state or entity.

Position of Lesotho within South Africa
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
Map showing the non-contiguous Belgian exclaves of Baarle-Hertog in the Netherlands, which, in turn, have Dutch enclaves within it
Former Indo-Bangladesh enclaves created by the 1947 Partition of India. These were abolished in 2015 following a treaty between India and Bangladesh.
Land for the Captain Cook Monument was deeded outright to the British government by the independent nation of Hawaii in 1877
The John F. Kennedy Memorial at Runnymede, United Kingdom, placed on land given to the United States of America in 1965
The Mauritania Railway. The inset shows the shorter route cutting through Western Sahara and the longer route within Mauritania through difficult terrain.

The Vatican City and San Marino, both enclaved by Italy, and Lesotho, enclaved by South Africa, are completely enclaved sovereign states.


Mozambican dhow
Arab-Swahili slave traders and their captives on the Ruvuma River
The Island of Mozambique is a small coral island at the mouth of Mossuril Bay on the Nacala coast of northern Mozambique, first explored by Europeans in the late 15th century.
View of the Central Avenue in Lourenço Marques, now Maputo, ca. 1905
Portuguese language printing and typesetting class, 1930
Portuguese troops during the Portuguese Colonial War, some loading FN FAL and G3
A land mine victim in Mozambique
The geopolitical situation in 1975, nations friendly to the FRELIMO are shown in orange
A US helicopter flying over the flooded Limpopo River during the 2000 Mozambique flood
Satellite image
Mozambique map of Köppen climate classification zones
Incumbent President Filipe Nyusi
Maputo City Hall
A section of the crowd at its final campaign rally for the 2014 election
Mozambique's embassy in Washington, D.C.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi meets members of Indian community in Mozambique, 7 July 2016
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mozambique, since 1960
A proportional representation of Mozambique's exports
Traditional sailboat in Ilha de Moçambique
European tourists on the beach, in Inhambane, Mozambique
Vilanculos beach Mozambique
Carrying goods on head in Mozambique
Steam locomotive at Inhambane, 2009
National Mozambican airline, LAM Mozambique
Woman fetching water during the dry season from a polluted source in Machaze District of the Central Manica Province
Ethnic map of Mozambique
Population pyramid 2016
The increase in the number of HIV positive Mozambicans on Antiretroviral treatment, 2003–14
Woman with traditional mask in Mozambique
Island of Mozambique, 2016
Headquarters of Rádio Moçambique in KaMpfumo district of Maputo (photo 2009)
Lebombo Mountains
Gorongosa National Park
Island of Mozambique
Monte Binga
Ponta do Ouro
Pupils in front of their school in Nampula, Mozambique
School children in the classroom

Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ; Mozambiki; Msumbiji; Muzambhiki), is a country located in Southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Eswatini (Swaziland) and South Africa to the southwest.

A genetic clustering of South African Coloured and five source populations. 
 Each vertical bar represents individual.


[[File:South Africa 2011 Coloured population proportion map.svg|thumb|250px|Coloured people as a proportion of the total population in South Africa.

[[File:South Africa 2011 Coloured population proportion map.svg|thumb|250px|Coloured people as a proportion of the total population in South Africa.

A genetic clustering of South African Coloured and five source populations. 
 Each vertical bar represents individual.
Adam Kok III, leader of the Coloured Griqua People
Explanation of South African identity numbers in an identity document during apartheid in terms of official White, Coloured and Indian population subgroups
Racial-demographic map of South Africa published by the CIA in 1979, with data from the 1970 South African census.

Coloureds are mostly found in the western part of South Africa.

A composite satellite image of Southern Africa

Southern Africa

Southernmost subregion of the African continent, south of the Congo and Tanzania.

Southernmost subregion of the African continent, south of the Congo and Tanzania.

A composite satellite image of Southern Africa
Waterfall in the Witwatersrand region near Johannesburg
Sandton, Johannesburg, the financial centre of South Africa

Countries commonly included in Southern Africa include Angola, Botswana, the Comoros, Eswatini, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Constitution of South Africa

Areas and boundaries affected by the Twelfth Amendment

The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme law of the Republic of South Africa.