South African Wars (1879–1915)

South African WarsSouth African WarBechuanaland ExpeditionBoer WarBoer warsSouth Africa
Ethnic, political and social tensions among European colonial powers, indigenous Africans, and English and Dutch settlers led to open conflict in a series of wars and revolts between 1879 and 1915 that would have lasting repercussions on the entire region of southern Africa.wikipedia
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Basuto Gun War

Basuto WarBasutho WarBasutoland 1880–81
They include the first and second Anglo-Boer War, the Anglo-Zulu War, the Basotho Gun War, the 9th Frontier War and others.

Colonialism

colonialcolonial powerscolonialist
Ethnic, political and social tensions among European colonial powers, indigenous Africans, and English and Dutch settlers led to open conflict in a series of wars and revolts between 1879 and 1915 that would have lasting repercussions on the entire region of southern Africa.

Anglo-Zulu War

Zulu WarZulu WarsZulu
They include the first and second Anglo-Boer War, the Anglo-Zulu War, the Basotho Gun War, the 9th Frontier War and others.

Xhosa Wars

frontier wars9th Frontier WarXhosa War
They include the first and second Anglo-Boer War, the Anglo-Zulu War, the Basotho Gun War, the 9th Frontier War and others.

Cecil Rhodes

RhodesCecil John RhodesCecil
However it is instructive also to see them as outbreaks in a far larger wave of change and conflict affecting the subcontinent – beginning with the "Confederation Wars" of the 1870s and 80s; escalating with the rise of Cecil Rhodes and the struggle for control of gold and diamond resources; and leading up to the Second Anglo-Boer War and the Union of South Africa in 1910.

Second Boer War

Boer WarAnglo-Boer WarSouth African War
They include the first and second Anglo-Boer War, the Anglo-Zulu War, the Basotho Gun War, the 9th Frontier War and others. However it is instructive also to see them as outbreaks in a far larger wave of change and conflict affecting the subcontinent – beginning with the "Confederation Wars" of the 1870s and 80s; escalating with the rise of Cecil Rhodes and the struggle for control of gold and diamond resources; and leading up to the Second Anglo-Boer War and the Union of South Africa in 1910.

Union of South Africa

South AfricaUnionSouth African
However it is instructive also to see them as outbreaks in a far larger wave of change and conflict affecting the subcontinent – beginning with the "Confederation Wars" of the 1870s and 80s; escalating with the rise of Cecil Rhodes and the struggle for control of gold and diamond resources; and leading up to the Second Anglo-Boer War and the Union of South Africa in 1910.

Orange Free State

Free StateOrange Free State RepublicRepublic of the Orange Free State
By 1880, there were four dominant European regions: the Cape Colony and Natal were to some degree under British control, and the Transvaal (South African Republic) and Orange Free State were independent republics controlled by the Boers.

Huguenots

HuguenotFrench HuguenotFrench Huguenots
The remainder were descended from German soldiers and sailors in the service of the Dutch East India Company's former administration, and a large number of French Huguenot refugees resettled there after fleeing religious persecution at home.

Trekboer

trekboerstrekking
Some of the existing colonists had become semi-nomadic pastoralists known as trekboers who frequently ventured beyond the Cape's frontier.

Xhosa people

XhosaamaXhosaXhosa nation
This led to an expansion of the colony's borders and clashes with the Xhosa tribe over pastureland in the vicinity of the Great Fish River.

Great Fish River

Fish RiverFishGreat Fish
This led to an expansion of the colony's borders and clashes with the Xhosa tribe over pastureland in the vicinity of the Great Fish River.

Orange River

OrangeOranjeSenqu River
Its northern border had been established at the Orange River, and Britain had handed over the administration of Basutoland too. The Free State's boundaries were defined almost entirely by rivers: the Orange River on the south, the Vaal River on the west and north, and the Caledon River on the east.

Basutoland

LesothoTerritory of Basutoland
Its northern border had been established at the Orange River, and Britain had handed over the administration of Basutoland too.

Responsible government

responsibleresponsible self-governmentself-governing
In practice however, it remained a European-dominated state, although in 1872 it succeeded in gaining a degree of independence from the British Empire, when it successfully instituted the system of "responsible government".

Griqualand East

Its government at first pursued a policy of avoiding further annexations so as to concentrate on internal development, but the South African Wars saw it annex several surrounding regions: Griqualand East, 1874; Griqualand West, 1880; and Southern Bechuanaland, 1895.

Griqualand West

Klipdrift Republic West Griqualand
Its government at first pursued a policy of avoiding further annexations so as to concentrate on internal development, but the South African Wars saw it annex several surrounding regions: Griqualand East, 1874; Griqualand West, 1880; and Southern Bechuanaland, 1895.

Bechuanaland Protectorate

Bechuanalandprotectorate British Protectorate of Bechuanaland
Its government at first pursued a policy of avoiding further annexations so as to concentrate on internal development, but the South African Wars saw it annex several surrounding regions: Griqualand East, 1874; Griqualand West, 1880; and Southern Bechuanaland, 1895.

Theophilus Shepstone

Sir Theophilus Shepstone
In 1877, at the outset of the South African Wars, the British under Theophilus Shepstone annexed the state, and the Boers were forced to cede their independence in exchange for a small pension.

First Boer War

FirstBoer WarFirst Anglo-Boer War
In 1881 the Boers rebelled and the First Anglo-Boer War ensued.

Vaal River

VaalTransvaalRiver Vaal
The Free State's boundaries were defined almost entirely by rivers: the Orange River on the south, the Vaal River on the west and north, and the Caledon River on the east.

Caledon River

CaledonCaledon river valleyCaledon valley
The Free State's boundaries were defined almost entirely by rivers: the Orange River on the south, the Vaal River on the west and north, and the Caledon River on the east.

Moshoeshoe I

MoshoeshoeMosheshKing Moshoeshoe I
The Caledon boundary was disputed with Moshoeshoe I's Sotho people, and fought over in two primary incidents – in 1858 and 1865.

Griqua people

GriquaGriquasKorana
In the 1870s the Free State Boers began moving into Griqualand West in search of farmland, pushing the Griqua out.