A report on South India

Zonal Councils of India
South India
Ancient Silk Road map. The Spice trade was mainly along the water routes (blue).
The Chola Empire during Rajendra Chola I, c. 1030
Map of South India (1953–1956) before the States Reorganisation Act of 1956
Satellite image of South India
The peak of Anamudi (2695 m above sea level) is the highest point of elevation in South India
Birds view of Krishna river Back water at Srisailam dam
South India also has the largest elephant population.
Map showing highway distribution with population density
The Rajiv Gandhi International Airport in Hyderabad
Aircraft parked at the Thiruvananthapuram International Airport
A Vishakhapatnam harbour view
A terminal at the Chennai Port
Major crop areas
Technopark, Trivandrum
The growth of information technology hubs in the region have spurred economic growth. Pictured is Tidel Park in Chennai
At 168.91 m height, the Idukki Dam is one of the highest arch dams in Asia.
Population Pyramid in South India
Dravidian language tree
The weave of Calico sample from a shopping bag shown against a centimetre scale.
A traditional meal served on a banana leaf
A Thalassery cuisine which makes use of Malabar spices
The large gopuram is a hallmark of Dravidian architecture.

South India, also known as Dakshina Bharata or Peninsular India, consists of the southern part of India encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana, as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, comprising 19.31% of India's area (635,780 km2) and 20% of India's population.

- South India

148 related topics with Alpha


Tamil Nadu

38 links

Tamil Nadu (, abbr.

Tamil Nadu (, abbr.

Keeladi, a Sangam Era Excavation Site, Sangam period
The Chola Empire at its greatest extent, during the reign of Rajendra Chola I in 1030
Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal at Madurai
Fort Dansborg at Tharangambadi built by the Danish
Thiruvilliputhur Andal Temple Gopuram has been adopted as the official Seal of Tamil Nadu.
Topographic map of Tamil Nadu
Western Ghats traverse along the western border of Tamil Nadu
Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve has the largest elephant population in India.
Madras High Court, Chennai
Districts of Tamil Nadu
Fort St. George hosts the Chief Secretariat of the government of Tamil Nadu.
Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health in Velankanni is a popular Christian pilgrimage site.
Asia's first Genderqueer Pride parade in Madurai with Anjali Gopalan and Gopi Shankar Madurai (2012)
Children in an elementary school in Mayiladuthurai
Agricultural farm in Nagapattinam
Agriculture forms a major portion of the state's economy.
Kanchipuram hand loom silk sarees
TIDEL Park Coimbatore; Coimbatore is one of the leading IT/ITS centers in India.
A view of the NH 544 expressway between Coimbatore and Salem in Tamil Nadu
Puratchi Thalaivar Dr. M.G. Ramachandran Central Railway Station, one of India's major railway stations
Chennai International Airport, one of India's major international airports.
V.O. Chidambaranar Port Authority in Thoothukudi, one of India's major seaports
Wind farm in Muppandal and Aralvaimozhi region near Nagercoil
Kamuthi Solar Power Project
Seventh century paintings in the Sittanavasal Cave, Pudukottai
Jallikattu – A traditional sport conducted as a part of Pongal celebrations
Man riding an elephant in a Pongal Festival Parade in Namakkal
M. S. Subbulakshmi was the first musician to be awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honor.
M. G. Ramachandran, was the first actor turned chief minister in India. He has been awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honor.
Nilgiri Mountain Railway has been described as an essential experience of the Western Ghats.
Kallanai or Grand Anicut, an ancient dam built on the Kaveri River in Thanjavur district by Karikala Chola around the 2nd century CE<ref>{{cite news |title=Flowing waters for fertile fields |url=http://www.thehindu.com/life-and-style/kids/article2408778.ece |newspaper=The Hindu |date=29 August 2011 |location=India |first=M. |last=Balaganessin |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120717220026/http://www.thehindu.com/life-and-style/kids/article2408778.ece |archive-date=17 July 2012 |url-status=dead}}</ref><ref name="kallanai_googlebook">{{cite book |last=Singh |first=Vijay P. |author2=Ram Narayan Yadava |title=Water Resources System Operation: Proceedings of the International Conference on Water and Environment |publisher=Allied Publishers |year=2003 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Bge-0XX6ip8C&q=kallanai&pg=PA508 |isbn=978-81-7764-548-4 |page=508}}</ref><ref name="kallanai_oldest">{{cite web |url=http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati/traditionwater.pdf |title=This is the oldest stone water-diversion or water-regulator structure in the world |access-date=27 May 2007 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070206130842/http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati/traditionwater.pdf |archive-date=6 February 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite encyclopedia |url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9021884/Cauvery-River |title=Cauvery River – Britannica Online Encyclopedia |encyclopedia=Britannica.com |access-date=23 September 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080726171728/http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9021884/Cauvery-River |archive-date=26 July 2008 |url-status=live}}</ref>
Shore Temple built by the Pallavas at Mamallapuram during the 8th century, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Vettuvan Koil, the unfinished temple is believed to have been built during the 8th century by Pandyas in Kalugumalai, a panchayat town in Thoothukudi district.
The granite gopuram (tower) of Brihadisvara Temple, 1010 CE
Airavatesvara Temple built by Rajaraja Chola II in the 12th century CE
The pyramidal structure above the sanctum at Brihadisvara Temple, Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Brihadisvara Temple Entrance Gopurams at Thanjavur
Ravichandran Ashwin – Cricket
Dinesh Karthik – Cricket
Adam Sinclair – Field hockey
Viswanathan Anand – Chess
P. V. Nandhidhaa – Chess Woman Grandmaster
Ramkumar Ramanathan – Tennis
Raj Bharath – Motorsport
Mariyappan Thangavelu (left most) – High jump
Mahesh Bhupathi – Tennis
alt=Ajay Jayram|Ajay Jayaram – Badminton
alt=Sharath Kamal|Sharath Kamal (left) – Table tennis
alt=Joshna Chinappa and Dipika Pallikal|Joshna Chinappa and Dipika Pallikal – Squash

The Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital.

Andhra Pradesh

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Andhra Pradesh (, abbr.

Andhra Pradesh (, abbr.

Telugu Thalli
Rajmahal of Chandragiri Fort
Gandikota fort view
Archaeological Museums map of Andhra Pradesh
Mangrove forest near Kakinada
Map of Andhra Pradesh
District court, Guntur
West Godavari district Collectorate complex, Eluru
Telugu Talli Statue near Kondareddy Buruju, Kurnool
Visakhapatnam is an important commercial hub of the state
Visakhapatnam skyline, overlooking seaport
Aerial View of Hindustan Shipyard Limited (HSL)
Isuzu Motors India manufacturing plant aerial view
Tech Mahindra Development Centre, Visakhapatnam
CELKON Manufacturing plant at Tirupati
Mangampet Barytes
Rayalaseema Thermal Power Station
Srisailam Hydel power project
Kondapalli Toys at a house in Vijayawada
Kuchipudi dance
Vegetarian Andhra meal, served on important occasions
Undavalli Caves, is a monolithic example of Indian rock-cut architecture and one of the finest testimonials to ancient viswakarma sthapathis.
Gandikota Canyon
Vijayawada-Guntur Expressway section of NH 16
NH 140 near Tirupati
Vijayawada railway station
Map of airports and airstrips of Andhra Pradesh
Map of seaports in Andhra Pradesh
Visakhapatnam seaport
A ship at the Visakhapatnam port
Map of universities in Andhra Pradesh
Agriculture University, Guntur
ICI Tirupati
SVU Admin Building
S V Agricultural College Tirupati
SPA Vijayawada
Satish Dhawan Space Centre [SDSC], Sriharikota, Nellore
Dr. Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy ACA–VDCA Cricket Stadium in Visakhapatnam
Andhra Pradesh topographical map
Krishna River at Srisailam
Srikalahasti Temple
Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala
Rock-cut Buddha statue at Bojjannakonda near Anakapalle, Visakhapatnam.
Lush green farms in Konaseema, East Godavari
Map of Sugar industries in Andhra Pradesh

According to the Aitareya Brahmana, the Andhras left North India from the banks of the Yamuna river and migrated to South India.


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India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

An illustration from an early-modern manuscript of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana, composed in story-telling fashion c. undefined.
Cave 26 of the rock-cut Ajanta Caves
India has the majority of the world's wild tigers, approximately 3,000 in 2019.
A Chital (Axis axis) stag attempts to browse in the Nagarhole National Park in a region covered by a moderately dense forest.
The last three Asiatic cheetahs (on record) in India were shot dead in Surguja district, Madhya Pradesh, Central India by Maharajah Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo. The young males, all from the same litter, were sitting together when they were shot at night in 1948.
Children awaiting school lunch in Rayka (also Raika), a village in rural Gujarat. The salutation Jai Bhim written on the blackboard honours the jurist, social reformer, and Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar.
Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar about to score a record 14,000 runs in test cricket while playing against Australia in Bangalore, 2010.
Bhutesvara Yakshis, Buddhist reliefs from Mathura, {{CE|2nd century}}
Gupta terracotta relief, Krishna Killing the Horse Demon Keshi, 5th century
thumb|Elephanta Caves, triple-bust (trimurti) of Shiva, {{convert|18|ft|m}} tall, {{circa|550}}
Chola bronze of Shiva as Nataraja ("Lord of Dance"), Tamil Nadu, 10th or 11th century.
Jahangir Receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on His Return from the Mewar Campaign, Balchand, {{circa|1635}}
Krishna Fluting to the Milkmaids, Kangra painting, 1775–1785

In South India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of Southeast Asia.

Tamil language

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Classical Dravidian language natively spoken by the Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent.

Classical Dravidian language natively spoken by the Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent.

Findings from Adichanallur in the Government Museum, Chennai
Keezhadi excavation site
Explanation for Mangulam Tamil Brahmi inscription in Mangulam, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, dated to Tamil Sangam period (c. 400 BC to c. 200 AD)
Tamil Brahmi script in the reverse side of the bilingual silver coin of king Vashishtiputra Sātakarni (c. AD 160) of Deccan. Rev: Ujjain/Sātavāhana symbol, crescented six-arch chaitya hill and river with Tamil Brahmi script  Obv: Bust of king; Prakrit legend in the Brahmi script
Mangulam Tamil Brahmi inscription in Mangulam, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, dated to Tamil Sangam period (c. 400 BC to c. 200 AD)
Middle Tamil inscriptions in Vatteluttu script in stone during Chola period c.1000 AD at Brahadeeswara temple in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu
An 18th-century Nayaka era sculpture depicting the wedding of Goddess Meenakshi
Jambai Tamil Brahmi inscription near Tirukkoyilur in Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu dated to the early Tamil Sangam age (c. 400 BC)
Historical evolution of Tamil writing from the earlier Tamil Brahmi near the top to the current Tamil script at bottom
Thirukkural palm leaf manuscript

Tamil is also spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Madras Presidency

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Administrative subdivision of British India.

Administrative subdivision of British India.

The Madras Presidency in 1913
Annie Besant in 1922
The Madras Presidency in 1913
The Indian National Congress came to power for the first time in 1937 with Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (pictured at a rally) as its Chief Minister
Madras province (North), 1909
Madras province (South), 1909
Linguistic map of the Madras Presidency
Vaishnavite Brahmin students at a Gurukulam in Tanjore, c. 1909
A village shrine dedicated to Lord Ayyanar, c. 1911
Muslim (called in English at the time as Muhammadan) boy, c. 1914
A British officer in the Madras Light Cavalry
A Jamadar of the 20th Deccan Horse
Statue of Sir Thomas Munro who introduced the "Ryotwari System" in the Madras Presidency
A 1936 map of rice stations in Madras Presidency
The Mullaperiyar Dam was constructed across the Periyar river for power generation
The port of Tuticorin
Textile showroom of M. V. Cunniah Chetty and Sons, circa 1914
Weaving on Handlooms, c. 1913
Parry & Co. sugar refineries at Samalkota, c. 1914
Workshops of the Madras Automobiles Ltd., c. 1904
Map of the Madras and South Mahratta Railway lines
The Nilgiri Mountain Railway, an UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Pamban railway bridge, which connects the Pamban island with the Indian mainland was constructed in 1914
A backwater and canal in Malabar, c. 1913
A Westernized middle-class urban Tamil Brahmin couple. c.a .1945
Tamil film actor M. K. Thyagaraja Bhagavathar
A Namboodiri Brahman's house, c.a. 1909
Hindu devotees in procession around the temple at Tirupparankunram, c.a. 1909
Telugu bride and groom belonging to the Kapu caste, c.a. 1909
A Mangalorean Catholic gentleman belonging to the Bamonn caste, c. a. 1938
Refreshment stall at a railway station in the Madras Presidency, c. a. 1895

At its greatest extent, the presidency included most of southern India, including the whole of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, and parts of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, Telangana, Odisha and the union territory of Lakshadweep.

Extent of Vijayanagara Empire, 1446, 1520 CE

Vijayanagara Empire

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Extent of Vijayanagara Empire, 1446, 1520 CE
Panorama of the Battle of Talikota (1565). In the right panel, Husain Shah (riding a horse) orders the decapitation of Ramaraya (reigned 1542-65), the defeated ruler of Vijaianagara. Ta'rif-i Husain Shahi (Chronicle of Husain Shah).
Kannada inscription of King Krishnadeva Raya, dated 1509, at the Virupaksha temple in Hampi, describing his coronation and the construction of the large open mantapa
Medieval City of Vijayanagara, a reconstructed ancient market place and plantation at the royal center Hampi
Gajashaala or elephant's stable, built by the Vijayanagar rulers for their war elephants
Horizontal friezes in relief on the outer wall enclosure of Hazara Rama temple, depicting life in the empire
Nāga, snake worship in Hampi
Painted ceiling from the Virupaksha temple depicting Hindu mythology, 14th century
Virupaksha Temple, Hampi
Ugra Narasimha monolith at Hampi
Ornate pillars, Virupaksha temple Hampi
Wall panel relief in Hazare Rama Temple at Hampi
Poetic inscription in Kannada by Vijayanagara poet Manjaraja (c.1398)
Temple car at the Vittala temple in Hampi
Aerial view of the Meenakshi Temple, Madurai. The temple was rebuilt by the Nayaks rulers under the Vijayanagar Empire

The Vijayanagara Empire, also called the Karnata Kingdom, was based in the Deccan Plateau region of South India.

Kingdom of Mysore

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HH Sri Chamarajendra Wadiyar X was a ruler of the Kingdom (1868 to 1894)
Kingdom of Mysore (1704) during the rule of King Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar
The flag of the Sultanate of Mysore at the entrance to the fort of Bangalore
A portrait of Tipu Sultan, made during the Third Anglo-Mysore War
General Lord Cornwallis receiving Tipu Sultan's sons as hostages.
Jayachamrajendra Wadiyar with Elizabeth II
Mysore Palace
The Gopura (tower) of the Chamundeshwari Temple on the Chamundi Hills. The temple is dedicated to Mysore's patron deity.
The Jaganmohan Palace at Mysore – now an art gallery which is home to some of Raja Ravi Varma's masterpieces
Tipu Sultan's tomb at Srirangapatna
Lalitha Mahal at Mysore, now a five-star hotel, plays host to visiting dignitaries and VIPs.

The Kingdom of Mysore was a realm in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.

Clive House at Fort St. George, Madras said to be the first English settlement in India during 1609


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Capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Clive House at Fort St. George, Madras said to be the first English settlement in India during 1609
Diogo Lopes de Sequeira, Viceroy of Portuguese India, established the first European settlement in Chennai with the construction of the port of São Tomé de Meliapor in 1522.
Surrender of the City of Madras in 1746 to de La Bourdonnais, by Jacques François Joseph Swebach
An 18th-century portrait depicting Fort St. George, the first major English settlement in India and the foundation stone of Chennai
St.Thomas Mount, Chennai
Map of Madras, ca 1914
Cooum River near its mouth in Chennai city
Satellite image of Chennai
Chitlapakkam lake in the southern part of the city
Divisions of Chennai district.
The Ripon Building, commissioned in 1913, houses the Greater Chennai Corporation
Madras High Court
A police patrol car
Tamil Nadu legislative assembly
Triumph of Labour
Parry's Corner, one of the oldest business areas of Chennai, lined up with Art Deco buildings.
Southern Railway Headquarters, one of the fine examples of Indo-Saracenic architecture in the city
Kapaleeshwarar Temple, a Hindu shrine in the neighborhood of Mylapore.
Santhome Basilica, a Christian cathedral in Mylapore as well.
Triplicane Big Mosque, a prominent mosque in Chennai.
National Art Gallery (Chennai)
MGR Memorial at Marina beach, Chennai
Corporate headquarters of the $10 billion Murugappa Group in Chennai
India Land Tech Park, Ambattur
Infosys at Mahindra World City, Chennai
Ashok Leyland Corporate Headquarters in Guindy, Chennai.
TATA Consultancy Services, Chennai
Cognizant's Delivery Center in Chennai
Zoho Headquarters in Chennai
Tidel Park
World Trade Center towers
World Bank Office in Chennai
Madras Atomic Power Station
Vallur Thermal Power Station
Government General Hospital
ITC Grand Chola Hotel, Chennai, is the largest hotel in South India.
Marina Beach is a famous landmark in the city.
Anna Centenary Library, one of the largest libraries in Asia
Headquarters of Sun Network, India's largest private TV broadcaster
Government law college, Chennai
Indian Institute of Technology, Madras is a premier engineering institute in India
College of Engineering, Guindy is the oldest engineering college in India established in 1794
University of Madras Senate House
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium multipurpose stadium
M. A. Chidambaram Stadium, one of the premier cricket venues in India
Chennai Open match at the SDAT Tennis Stadium
Madras Motor Race Track circuit, in Irungattukottai
The American consulate in Chennai.

The state's largest city in area and population as well, Chennai is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, and is the most prominent cultural, economic and educational centre of South India.

Pandya dynasty

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Ancient dynasty of South India, and among the three great kingdoms of Tamilakam, the other two being the Cholas and the Cheras.

Ancient dynasty of South India, and among the three great kingdoms of Tamilakam, the other two being the Cholas and the Cheras.

Pandyan Empire at greatest extent.
Mangulam inscription (3rd and 2nd centuries BCE)
Pandyan Empire at greatest extent.
Vaigai River in Madurai
Vettuvan Koil, Kalugumalai, Tuticorin. Pandya kingdom, 8th century CE
Kalugumalai Jain beds, Pandya kingdom, king Jatila Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan (8th century CE)
Pandya country in the Chola Empire (12th century)
An aerial view of Madurai city from Meenakshi Temple
Jatavarman Vira II's fish insignia at Koneswaram temple in Trincomalee (Eastern Province).
Silk Road map showing ancient trade routes.
The gopura of Nellaiappar Temple
One of the early coins of the Pandyas showing their emblem of the Two Fishes.
God Vishnu, goddess Meenakshi and god Shiva (Meenakshi Temple, Madurai).
Meenakshi Temple, Madurai.
Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram.

The Pandyas ruled extensive territories, at times including regions of present-day South India and northern Sri Lanka through vassal states subject to Madurai.

Malabar Coast

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Southwestern coast of the Indian subcontinent.

Southwestern coast of the Indian subcontinent.

The Western Ghats lie roughly parallel to the southwestern Malabar coast of India.
Anamudi, the highest peak in India outside the Himalayas, lies parallel to the Malabar Coast, in Western Ghats.
Bekal Fort Beach in Kerala
Vembanad, the largest lake in India, is a portion of the Kerala Backwaters
The Athirappilly Falls is located on Chalakudy River.
Periyar, the longest river of Kerala.
A view of the Kadalundi Bird Sanctuary. The coastal area of Malabar is home to several migratory birds.
Silk Road and Spice trade, ancient trade routes that linked India with the Old World, carried goods and ideas between the ancient civilisations of the Old World and India. The land routes are red; the water routes are blue.
Kappad beach near Koyilandy
Sandy beaches dotted with swaying coconut palms are a ubiquitous sight along the Malabar coast
Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century CE)
The path Vasco da Gama took to reach Kozhikode (black line) in 1498, which was also the discovery of a sea route from Europe to India, and eventually paved way for the European colonisation of Indian subcontinent.
A map of the erstwhile Malabar District in 1951

Geographically, it comprises the wettest regions of southern India, as the Western Ghats intercept the moisture-laden monsoon rains, especially on their westward-facing mountain slopes.