South Pole Telescope

10 m diameter telescope located at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica.

- South Pole Telescope

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Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station

United States scientific research station at the South Pole of the Earth.

United States scientific research station at the South Pole of the Earth.

Geographic South Pole
The communication office at the South Pole
The main entrance to the former geodesic dome ramped down from the surface level. The base of the dome was originally at the surface level of the ice cap, but the base had been slowly buried by snow and ice.
An aerial view of the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station taken in about 1983. The central dome is shown along with the arches, with various storage buildings, and other auxiliary buildings such as garages and hangars.
The dome in January 2009, as seen from the new elevated station.
Ceremonial South Pole (the dome in the background was dismantled in 2009–2010).
January 2010: The last section of the old dome, before it was removed the next day.
An aerial view of the Amundsen–Scott Station in January 2005. The older domed station is visible on the right-hand side of this photo.
The Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station during the 2007–2008 summer season.
A photo of the station at night. The new station can be seen in the far left, the electric power plant is in the center, and the old vehicle mechanic's garage in the lower right. The green light in the sky is part of the aurora australis.

Such experiments include the Python, Viper, and DASI telescopes, as well as the 10 m South Pole Telescope.

Spiderweb bolometer for measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.

Bolometer

Device for measuring radiant heat by means of a material having a temperature-dependent electrical resistance.

Device for measuring radiant heat by means of a material having a temperature-dependent electrical resistance.

Spiderweb bolometer for measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech.
Conceptual schematic of a bolometer. Power, P, from an incident signal is absorbed and heats up a thermal mass with heat capacity, C, and temperature, T. The thermal mass is connected to a reservoir of constant temperature through a link with thermal conductance, G. The temperature increase is ΔT = P/G and is measured with a resistive thermometer, allowing the determination of P. The intrinsic thermal time constant is τ = C/G.

Recent examples of bolometers employed in millimeter-wavelength astronomy are AdvACT, BICEP array, SPT-3G and the HFI camera on the Planck satellite, as well as the planned Simons Observatory, CMB-S4 experiment, and LiteBIRD satellite.

Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

American foundation established by Intel co-founder Gordon E. Moore and his wife Betty I. Moore in September 2000 to support scientific discovery, environmental conservation, patient care improvements and preservation of the character of the Bay Area.

American foundation established by Intel co-founder Gordon E. Moore and his wife Betty I. Moore in September 2000 to support scientific discovery, environmental conservation, patient care improvements and preservation of the character of the Bay Area.

South Pole Telescope (SPT)

Graph of cosmic microwave background spectrum measured by the FIRAS instrument on the COBE, the most precisely measured black body spectrum in nature. The error bars are too small to be seen even in an enlarged image, and it is impossible to distinguish the observed data from the theoretical curve.

Cosmic microwave background

Electromagnetic radiation which is a remnant from an early stage of the universe, also known as "relic radiation".

Electromagnetic radiation which is a remnant from an early stage of the universe, also known as "relic radiation".

Graph of cosmic microwave background spectrum measured by the FIRAS instrument on the COBE, the most precisely measured black body spectrum in nature. The error bars are too small to be seen even in an enlarged image, and it is impossible to distinguish the observed data from the theoretical curve.
The Holmdel Horn Antenna on which Penzias and Wilson discovered the cosmic microwave background. The antenna was constructed in 1959 to support Project Echo—the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's passive communications satellites, which used large earth orbiting aluminized plastic balloons as reflectors to bounce radio signals from one point on the Earth to another.
The power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature anisotropy in terms of the angular scale (or multipole moment). The data shown comes from the WMAP (2006), Acbar (2004) Boomerang (2005), CBI (2004), and VSA (2004) instruments. Also shown is a theoretical model (solid line).
This artist's impression shows how light from the early universe is deflected by the gravitational lensing effect of massive cosmic structures forming B-modes as it travels across the universe.
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Comparison of CMB results from COBE, WMAP and Planck
(March 21, 2013)

These include DASI, WMAP, BOOMERanG, QUaD, Planck spacecraft, Atacama Cosmology Telescope, South Pole Telescope and the QUIET telescope.

Chandra image of the Perseus Cluster's radio lobes. These relativistic jets of plasma emit radio waves, are X-ray "cold", and appear as dark patches in stark contrast to the rest of the ICM.

Intracluster medium

Superheated plasma that permeates a galaxy cluster.

Superheated plasma that permeates a galaxy cluster.

Chandra image of the Perseus Cluster's radio lobes. These relativistic jets of plasma emit radio waves, are X-ray "cold", and appear as dark patches in stark contrast to the rest of the ICM.

These temperature distortions in the CMB can be used by telescopes such as the South Pole Telescope to detect dense clusters of galaxies at high redshifts

First measurements of the thermal Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array with one of the most massive galaxy clusters known, RX J1347.5-1145.

Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect

Spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) through inverse Compton scattering by high-energy electrons in galaxy clusters, in which the low-energy CMB photons receive an average energy boost during collision with the high-energy cluster electrons.

Spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) through inverse Compton scattering by high-energy electrons in galaxy clusters, in which the low-energy CMB photons receive an average energy boost during collision with the high-energy cluster electrons.

First measurements of the thermal Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array with one of the most massive galaxy clusters known, RX J1347.5-1145.

This might help in understanding the dynamics of dark energy in surveys (South Pole Telescope, Atacama Cosmology Telescope, Planck).

Aerial view of the Andes as seen from the vicinity of Calama, Chile. ACT is located on Cerro Toco, near Cerro Chajnantor and the Licancabur Volcano.

Atacama Cosmology Telescope

Six-meter diameter telescope located on Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert in the north of Chile, near the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory.

Six-meter diameter telescope located on Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert in the north of Chile, near the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory.

Aerial view of the Andes as seen from the vicinity of Calama, Chile. ACT is located on Cerro Toco, near Cerro Chajnantor and the Licancabur Volcano.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope viewed from the top of the outer ground screen. The top half of the segmented, primary mirror can be seen above the inner ground screen that moves with the telescope.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope. In this picture, the ground screen had not yet been completed, allowing the telescope to be seen.
Atacama Cosmology Telescope observing patches and depth map

The South Pole Telescope is a similar, but complementary, telescope.

Absorption spectrum (attenuation coefficient vs. wavelength) of liquid water (red), atmospheric water vapor (green) and ice (blue line) between 667 nm and 200 μm. The plot for vapor is a transformation of data Synthetic spectrum for gas mixture Pure H2O (296K, 1 atm) retrieved from Hitran on the Web Information System.

Electromagnetic absorption by water

The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by water depends on the state of the water.

The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by water depends on the state of the water.

Absorption spectrum (attenuation coefficient vs. wavelength) of liquid water (red), atmospheric water vapor (green) and ice (blue line) between 667 nm and 200 μm. The plot for vapor is a transformation of data Synthetic spectrum for gas mixture Pure H2O (296K, 1 atm) retrieved from Hitran on the Web Information System.
Liquid water absorption spectrum across a wide wavelength range
Part of the pure rotation absorption spectrum of water vapour
Rotating water molecule
Visible light absorption spectrum of pure water (absorption coefficient vs. wavelength)
Dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss of water between 0°C and 100°C, the arrows showing the effect of increasing temperature
Synthetic stick absorption spectrum of a simple gas mixture corresponding to the Earth's atmosphere composition based on HITRAN data created using Hitran on the Web system. Green color - water vapor, WN – wavenumber (caution: lower wavelengths on the right, higher on the left). Water vapor concentration for this gas mixture is 0.4%.

The South Pole Telescope was constructed in Antarctica in part because the elevation and low temperatures there mean there is very little water vapor in the atmosphere.

Optical image of four tungsten transition-edge sensors for near-infrared single-photon detection. Image credit: NIST.

Transition-edge sensor

Type of cryogenic energy sensor or cryogenic particle detector that exploits the strongly temperature-dependent resistance of the superconducting phase transition.

Type of cryogenic energy sensor or cryogenic particle detector that exploits the strongly temperature-dependent resistance of the superconducting phase transition.

Optical image of four tungsten transition-edge sensors for near-infrared single-photon detection. Image credit: NIST.

TES arrays are becoming increasingly common in physics and astronomy experiments such as SCUBA-2, the HAWC+ instrument on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, the Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers, the E and B Experiment, the South Pole Telescope, the Spider polarimeter, the X-IFU instrument of the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics satellite, the future LiteBIRD Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment, the Simons Observatory, and the CMB Stage-IV Experiment.

V838 Monocerotis, a variable star accompanied by a light echo, has been erroneously portrayed as an approaching planet or brown dwarf on a collision course with Earth.

Nibiru cataclysm

Supposed disastrous encounter between Earth and a large planetary object that certain groups believed would take place in the early 21st century.

Supposed disastrous encounter between Earth and a large planetary object that certain groups believed would take place in the early 21st century.

V838 Monocerotis, a variable star accompanied by a light echo, has been erroneously portrayed as an approaching planet or brown dwarf on a collision course with Earth.
Nancy Lieder in June 2013
The "Winged Sun of Thebes", from Egyptian Mythology and Egyptian Christianity written by Samuel Sharpe in 1863. Proponents of the Nibiru cataclysm have often cited this as an ancient representation of Nibiru.
David Meade believed that Nibiru's arrival on September 23, 2017, was tied to an astrological reading of the Woman of the Apocalypse.
NASA images showing the expansion of a light echo around V838 Mon, between 2002 and 2004
Photograph taken in 2006 showing Barnard's Star, which V. M. Rabolú claimed to actually be the planet Hercolubus
A composite image of Comet ISON, which generated a number of UFO claims
Artist's impression of the hypothetical Planet Nine as an ice giant eclipsing the central Milky Way, with the Sun in the distance. Neptune's orbit is shown as a small ellipse around the Sun. ([[:File:Planet nine artistic plain labeled.png|See labeled version]].)
Astronomer David Morrison has repeatedly debunked the claims of Nibiru cataclysm supporters.

Another accusation made by websites predicting the collision is that the US government built the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to track Nibiru's trajectory, and that the object has been imaged optically.