South Tyrol

TyrolProvince of BolzanoSouth TyroleanSüdtirolautonomous province of BolzanoBolzanoSouth TirolTyroleanAlto AdigeBolzano/Bozen
South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy, one of the two that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.wikipedia
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Provinces of Italy

Provinceprovincesprovincial
South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy, one of the two that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.
The South Tyrol and Trentino are autonomous provinces: unlike all other provinces they have the same legislative powers as regions and are not subordinated to Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, the region they are part of.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
Its official trilingual denomination is Autonome Provinz Bozen – Südtirol in German, Provincia autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige in Italian and Provinzia autonoma de Bulsan – Südtirol in Ladin, reflecting the three main language groups to which its population belongs. According to 2014 data based on the 2011 census, 62.3% of the population speaks German (Standard German in the written form and an Austro-Bavarian dialect in the spoken form); 23.4% of the population speaks Italian, mainly in and around the two largest cities (Bolzano and Merano); 4.1% speaks Ladin, a Rhaeto-Romance language; 10.2% of the population (mainly recent immigrants) speaks another language as first language.
It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and Liechtenstein.

Bolzano

BozenBolzano, ItalyBolzano-Bozen
Its capital and largest city is Bolzano (German: Bozen; Ladin: Balsan or Bulsan).
Bolzano ( or ; Bozen (formerly Botzen), ; Bozn; or Bulsan) is the capital city of the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.

Ladin language

LadinLadinoLadin-speaking
Its official trilingual denomination is Autonome Provinz Bozen – Südtirol in German, Provincia autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige in Italian and Provinzia autonoma de Bulsan – Südtirol in Ladin, reflecting the three main language groups to which its population belongs. According to 2014 data based on the 2011 census, 62.3% of the population speaks German (Standard German in the written form and an Austro-Bavarian dialect in the spoken form); 23.4% of the population speaks Italian, mainly in and around the two largest cities (Bolzano and Merano); 4.1% speaks Ladin, a Rhaeto-Romance language; 10.2% of the population (mainly recent immigrants) speaks another language as first language.
Ladin (, also ; autonym: ladin, ladino; Ladinisch) is a Romance language consisting of a group of dialects that some consider part of a unitary Rhaeto-Romance language, mainly spoken in the Dolomite Mountains in Northern Italy in the provinces of South Tyrol, the Trentino, and the Belluno, by the Ladin people.

Merano

MeranMerano, ItalyObermais
According to 2014 data based on the 2011 census, 62.3% of the population speaks German (Standard German in the written form and an Austro-Bavarian dialect in the spoken form); 23.4% of the population speaks Italian, mainly in and around the two largest cities (Bolzano and Merano); 4.1% speaks Ladin, a Rhaeto-Romance language; 10.2% of the population (mainly recent immigrants) speaks another language as first language.
Merano or Meran is a city and comune in South Tyrol, northern Italy.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy, one of the two that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.
A well-preserved natural mummy known as Ötzi the Iceman, determined to be 5,000 years old (between 3400 and 3100 BCE, Copper Age), was discovered in the Similaun glacier of South Tyrol in 1991.

Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic)

Kingdom of ItalyNapoleonic Kingdom of ItalyItaly
The term had been the name of political subdivisions along the Adige River in the time of Napoleon Bonaparte, who created the Department of Alto Adige, part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.
It covered the modern provinces of Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Trentino, South Tyrol, and Marche.

Adige

Adige RiverAdige ValleyEtsch
The term had been the name of political subdivisions along the Adige River in the time of Napoleon Bonaparte, who created the Department of Alto Adige, part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.
The Adige (Etsch ; Àdexe ; undefined; ; Athesis;, or Ἄταγις, Átagis ) is the second longest river in Italy after the Po, rising in the Alps in the province of South Tyrol near the Italian border with Austria and Switzerland, flowing 410 km through most of North-East Italy to the Adriatic Sea.

Landeshauptmann

Landeshauptleutegovernorgovernors
Provincial institutions are referred to using the prefix Landes-, such as Landesregierung (state government) and Landeshauptmann (governor).
Landeshauptmann (if male) or Landeshauptfrau (if female) (, "state captain", plural Landeshauptleute) is the chairman of a state government and the supreme official of an Austrian states and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino.

Italianization of South Tyrol

Italianizationannexedeliminate German elements
With the rise of Italian Fascism, the new regime made efforts to bring forward the Italianization of South Tyrol.
In 1919, at the time of its annexation, the middle part of the County of Tyrol which is today called South Tyrol (in Italian Alto Adige) was inhabited by almost 90% German speakers.

Standard German

StandardGermanHigh German
According to 2014 data based on the 2011 census, 62.3% of the population speaks German (Standard German in the written form and an Austro-Bavarian dialect in the spoken form); 23.4% of the population speaks Italian, mainly in and around the two largest cities (Bolzano and Merano); 4.1% speaks Ladin, a Rhaeto-Romance language; 10.2% of the population (mainly recent immigrants) speaks another language as first language.
High German of the southern uplands and the Alps (including Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and parts of northern Italy as well as southern Germany) contrasts with Low German spoken in the lowlands stretching towards the North Sea.

Tyrol (state)

TyrolTirolTyrolean
The other members are Tyrol state in Austria, to the north and east, and the Italian Autonomous province of Trento to the South. The province is bordered by Austria to the east and north, specifically by the Austrian federal-states Tyrol and Salzburg, and by the Swiss canton of Graubünden to the west.
It is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino (together with South Tyrol and Trentino in Italy).

Trentino

TrentoProvince of TrentoAutonomous Province of Trento
The other members are Tyrol state in Austria, to the north and east, and the Italian Autonomous province of Trento to the South.
Trento and South Tyrol constitute the region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, an autonomous region under the constitution.

Department of Alto Adige

Haut Adige
The term had been the name of political subdivisions along the Adige River in the time of Napoleon Bonaparte, who created the Department of Alto Adige, part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.
Neither the Cisalpine district nor the department of the Kingdom of Italy correspond precisely to the modern Italian province of Alto Adige (also known officially as "Alto Adige-South Tyrol"), although there is some geographical overlap.

Salzburg (state)

SalzburgSalzburgerlandState of Salzburg
The province is bordered by Austria to the east and north, specifically by the Austrian federal-states Tyrol and Salzburg, and by the Swiss canton of Graubünden to the west.
It is surrounded by the Austrian lands of Upper Austria in the northeast, by Styria in the east, by Carinthia in the south as well as by Tyrol, South Tyrol (Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy) and East Tyrol in the southwest.

Allies of World War I

AlliesAlliedAllied Powers
The Allies promised the area to Italy in the Treaty of London of 1915 as an incentive to enter the war on their side.
Italian nationalists referred to Austrian-held Trieste and South Tyrol as 'the lost territories,' making the Alliance so controversial that the terms were kept secret until it expired in 1915.

Valleys of South Tyrol

Val Ridannavalleys
Located between the mountains are many valleys, where the majority of the population lives.
This is a partial list of valleys of South Tyrol, a mountainous province in northern Italy, bordering Austria and Switzerland.

Operational Zone of the Alpine Foothills

Operation Zone of the Alpine FoothillsOperationszone AlpenvorlandPrealpine Operations Zone
In 1943, when the Italian government signed an armistice with the Allies, the region was occupied by Germany, which reorganised it as the Operation Zone of the Alpine Foothills and put it under the administration of Gauleiter Franz Hofer.
It comprised the provinces of Belluno, Bolzano and Trento.

Dolomites

DolomiteDolomite MountainsDolomiti
Even more famous are the craggy peaks of the Dolomites in the eastern part of the region.
The Dolomites are nearly equally shared between the provinces of Belluno, South Tyrol and Trentino.

Municipalities of South Tyrol

Gemeinde116 in the Province of BolzanoGemeinde (South Tyrol)
The province is further divided into 116 Gemeinden or comuni.
The following is a list of municipalities of the autonomous province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.

Ötztal Alps

ÖtztalÖtztaler AlpenAlpine
The Ötztal Alps (Alpi Venoste, Ötztaler Alpen) are a mountain range in the Central Eastern Alps, in the State of Tyrol in southern Austria and the Province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.

Ortler

Monte OrtlerOrtlesCima Ortles
The highest peak is the Ortler (3,905 m) in the far west, which is also the highest peak in the Eastern Alps outside the Bernina Range.
It is the highest point of the Southern Limestone Alps, of the Italian province of South Tyrol, of Tyrol overall, and, until 1919, of the Austrian-Hungarian empire.

Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino Euroregion

TyrolEuroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-TrentinoTyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino
In the wider context of the European Union, the province is one of the three members of the Euroregion of Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino, which corresponds almost exactly to the historical region of Tyrol.
The Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino Euroregion (Europaregion Tirol-Südtirol-Trentino; Euregio Tirolo-Alto Adige-Trentino) is a Euroregion formed by three different regional authorities in Austria and Italy: the Austrian state of Tyrol (i.e. North and East Tyrol) and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino.

South Tyrolean Liberation Committee

Befreiungsausschuss Südtirolseparatist groupsSouth Tyrol insurgency
This, together with the arrival of new Italian-speaking immigrants, led to strong dissatisfaction among South Tyroleans, which culminated in terrorist acts perpetrated by the Befreiungsausschuss Südtirol (BAS — Committee for the Liberation of South Tyrol).
The South Tyrolean Liberation Committee (Befreiungsausschuss Südtirol, abbreviated BAS) was an underground secessionist and terroristic organisation founded by Sepp Kerschbaumer and several combatants in the mid-1950s which aimed to achieve the right for self-determination for South Tyrol and the related secession from Italy via bomb attacks.

High Tauern

Hohe TauernHigh Tauern National ParkHohe Tauern National Park
The crest forms the southern border of the Austrian states of Salzburg, Carinthia and East Tyrol, with a small part in the southwest belongs to the Italian province of South Tyrol.