Southeast Asia

States and regions of Southeast Asia
A political map of Southeast Asia
Megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra, Indonesia 1500 CE
The Austroasiatic and Austronesian expansions into Maritime Southeast Asia.
Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC
Spread of Hinduism from South Asia to Southeast Asia
Borobudur temple in Central Java, Indonesia
Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia
Wapauwe Old Mosque is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia, and the second oldest in Southeast Asia, built in 1414
Strait of Malacca
Colonial boundaries in Southeast Asia
Fort Cornwallis in George Town marks the spot where the British East India Company first landed in Penang in 1786, thus heralding the British colonisation of Malaya
Duit, a coin minted by the VOC, 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duit
Relief map of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia map of Köppen climate classification
Komodo dragon in Komodo National Park, Indonesia
The Philippine eagle
Wallace's hypothetical line divides Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deepwater of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side
The Port of Singapore is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia
Along with its temples Cambodia has been promoting its coastal resorts. Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville, Cambodia
Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia (with Indonesia split into its major islands).
Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
Spirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Balinese Hindu temples.
Thai Theravada Buddhists in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple, the oldest Taoist temple in Penang, Malaysia.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei, an Islamic country with Sharia rule.
Roman Catholic Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Manila, Philippines.
A Protestant church in Indonesia. Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia.
Jewish Surabaya Synagogue in Indonesia, demolished in 2013.
Burmese puppet performance
Paddy field in Vietnam
The Royal Ballet of Cambodia (Paris, France 2010)
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Thai manuscript from before the 19th-century writing system
Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Bangkok, Thailand
Singapore
Manila, Philippines
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Jakarta, Indonesia

Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and northwest of Australia.

- Southeast Asia

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Myanmar

Pyu city-states, c. 8th century; Pagan is shown for comparison only and is not contemporary.
Pagodas and kyaungs in present-day Bagan, the capital of the Pagan Kingdom
Temples at Mrauk U.
Toungoo Empire under Bayinnaung in 1580
A British 1825 lithograph of Shwedagon Pagoda shows British occupation during the First Anglo-Burmese War.
The landing of British forces in Mandalay after the last of the Anglo-Burmese Wars, which resulted in the abdication of the last Burmese monarch, King Thibaw Min
British troops firing a mortar on the Mawchi road, July 1944
British governor Hubert Elvin Rance and Sao Shwe Thaik at the flag-raising ceremony on 4 January 1948 (Independence Day of Burma)
Protesters gathering in central Rangoon, 1988.
Protesters in Yangon during the 2007 Saffron Revolution with a banner that reads non-violence: national movement in Burmese. In the background is Shwedagon Pagoda.
Cyclone Nargis in southern Myanmar, May 2008.
U.S. President Barack Obama and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton with Aung San Suu Kyi and her staff at her home in Yangon, 2012
Map of Myanmar and its divisions, including Shan State, Kachin State, Rakhine State and Karen State.
Protesters against the military coup in Myanmar
Myanmar map of Köppen climate classification.
The limestone landscape of Kayin State
Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw)
Myanmar President Thein Sein meets US President Barack Obama in Yangon, 2012
The former Secretary-General of the United Nations, U Thant (1961–1971)
A Myanmar Air Force Mikoyan MiG-29 multirole fighter
Map of conflict zones in Myanmar. States and regions affected by fighting during and after 1995 are highlighted in yellow.
Mae La camp, Tak, Thailand, one of the largest of nine UNHCR camps in Thailand
Displaced Rohingya people of Myanmar
A Rohingya refugee camp in Bangladesh
A proportional representation of Myanmar exports, 2019
The trains are relatively slow in Myanmar. The railway trip from Bagan to Mandalay takes about 7.5 hours (179 km).
Rice is Myanmar's largest agricultural product.
Tourists in Myanmar
U Bein Bridge in Mandalay.
A block of apartments in downtown Yangon, facing Bogyoke Market. Much of Yangon's urban population resides in densely populated flats.
Population pyramid 2016
Ethnolinguistic Groups of Burma/Myanmar
Praying Buddhist monks in Shwedagon Pagoda
Students on their way to school, Kalaymyo, Sagaing Region, Myanmar
Burmese Kinnayi Kinnaya dance
A Buddhist Shinbyu ceremony in Mandalay.
An Arakan (Rakhine) girl pours water at revellers during the Burmese New Year Thingyan Water Festival in Yangon.
Men playing chinlone
Kayan women in a village near Inle Lake, 2010

Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်‌, ), also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia.

Thailand

SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, King Mongkut's signature
Map showing geographic distribution of Tai-Kadai linguistic family. Arrows represent general pattern of the migration of Tai-speaking tribes along the rivers and over the lower passes.
Taksin the Great enthroned himself as a Thai king, 1767.
Coronation of King Bhumibol Adulyadej.
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship, Red Shirts, protest in 2010
Thailand map of Köppen climate classification.
The population of Asian elephants in Thailand's wild has dropped to an estimated 2,000–3,000.
Sappaya-Sapasathan, the current Parliament House of Thailand
King Bhumibol Adulyadej in a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama, 18 November 2012
The HTMS Chakri Naruebet, an aircraft carrier of the Royal Thai Navy
A Royal Thai Air Force JAS 39 Gripen
A proportional representation of Thailand exports, 2019
Sathorn in Bangkok is a skyscraper-studded business district that is home to major hotels and embassies.
Development of real GDP per capita, 1890 to 2018
A proportional representation of Thailand's exports
Thailand has long been one of the largest rice exporters in the world. Forty-nine percent of Thailand's labour force is employed in agriculture.
Scientists are working in the lab
The BTS Skytrain is an elevated rapid transit system in Bangkok
Population pyramid 2016
Hill tribes girls in the Northeast of Thailand
Samanera of Theravada Buddhism, the most practised religion in Thailand.
Chulalongkorn University, established in 1917, is the oldest university in Thailand.
Thailand is a country where school uniform is mandatory.
Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, the oldest and largest hospital in Thailand.
Thai women wearing sabai, Jim Thompson House
People floating krathong rafts during the Loi Krathong festival in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Scene from the Ramakien depicted on a mural at Wat Phra Kaew.
Two sculptures guarding the eastern gate to the main chapel of Wat Arun.
Sculptures of Phra Aphai Mani and the Mermaid from the epic poem Phra Aphai Mani, a work of Sunthorn Phu.
Khon show is the most stylised form of Thai performance.
Muay Thai, Thailand's signature sport
Lumpinee Boxing Stadium

Thailand, historically known as Siam and officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia, located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, spanning 513120 km2, with a population of almost 70 million.

Vietnam

A Đông Sơn bronze drum, c. 800 BC
Vietnam's territories around 1838
The Grand Palais built for the 1902–1903 world's fair, when Hanoi was French Indochina's capital
Partition of French Indochina after the 1954 Geneva Conference
Three US Fairchild UC-123B aircraft spraying Agent Orange during the Operation Ranch Hand as part of a herbicidal warfare operation depriving the food and vegetation cover of the Việt Cộng, c. 1962–1971
Nature attractions in Vietnam, clockwise from top: Hạ Long Bay, Yến River and Bản-Giốc Waterfalls
Hoàng Liên Sơn mountain range, the range that includes Fansipan which is the highest summit on the Indochinese Peninsula.
Köppen climate classification map of Vietnam.
Nha Trang, a popular beach destination has a tropical savanna climate.
Native species in Vietnam, clockwise from top-right: crested argus, a peafowl, red-shanked douc, Indochinese leopard, saola.
Sa Pa mountain hills with agricultural activities
The National Assembly of Vietnam building in Hanoi
Examples of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right: T-54B tank, Sukhoi Su-27UBK fighter aircraft, Vietnam Coast Guard Hamilton-class cutter, and Vietnam People's Army chemical corps with Type 56.
A Communist Party propaganda poster in Hanoi
Historical GDP per capita development of Vietnam
Tree map showing Vietnam's exports
Vietnam's tallest skyscraper, the Landmark 81 located in Bình Thạnh, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon).
Terraced rice fields in Sa Pa
A Vietnamese-made TOPIO 3.0 humanoid ping-pong-playing robot displayed during the 2009 International Robot Exhibition (IREX) in Tokyo.
Vietnamese science students working on an experiment in their university lab.
Hội An, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a major tourist destination.
HCMC–LT–DG section of the North–South Expressway.
Tan Son Nhat International Airport is the busiest airport in the country.
The port of Hai Phong is one of the largest and busiest container ports in Vietnam.
Sơn La Dam in northern Vietnam, the largest hydroelectric dam in Southeast Asia.
In rural areas of Vietnam, piped water systems are operated by a wide variety of institutions including a national organisation, people committees (local government), community groups, co-operatives and private companies.
Development of life expectancy in Vietnam since 1950
Vietnam population pyramid in 2019
District 1, Ho Chi Minh City.
Urbanisation in west Hanoi
Vietnamese calligraphy in Latin alphabet.
Vietnamese traditional white school uniform for girls in the country, the áo dài with the addition of nón lá, a conical hat.
Vietnamese dragon on Emperor Khải Định's c. 1917 scroll in British Library collection.
Ca trù trio performance in northern Vietnam
Some of the notable Vietnamese cuisine, clockwise from top-right: phở noodle, chè thái fruit dessert, chả giò spring roll and bánh mì sandwich.
Vietnam Television (VTV), the main state television station
Special Tết decoration in the country seen during the holiday
Mỹ Đình National Stadium in Hanoi.

Vietnam (Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is a country in Southeast Asia.

ASEAN

Map showing the member states of ASEAN.
ASEAN leaders sign the declaration of the ASEAN Economic Community during the 27th ASEAN Summit in Kuala Lumpur, 2015
Selection of GDP PPP data (top 10 countries and blocks) in no particular order
Royal Thai Embassy, Helsinki, flying its own national flag as well as ASEAN's flag
Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte poses for a photo with the ASEAN foreign ministers during the 50th anniversary of the group's foundation on 8 August 2017.
Haze over Borneo, 2006
The flags of the ASEAN member states in Jakarta, Indonesia
The Secretariat of ASEAN in Jakarta
ASEAN Tourism Forum 2019 - Traditional Vietnam woman cloth parade
ASEAN Tourism Awards 2019 - Gzhel costumes Vietnam style
Nguyễn Ngọc Thiện, Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism of Vietnam at the ASEAN Tourism Awards 2019 in Ha Long Bay
Children from Thai Hai Reserve Area of Ecological Houses-on-stilts Ethnic Village at the ASEAN Tourism Forum 2019 in Ha Long Bay, Viet Nam; organised by TTG Events,
Closing Ceremony of Visit Vietnam Year 2018 & Gala Celebrating the Success of ATF 2019

ASEAN officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a political and economic union of 10 member states in Southeast Asia, which promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration between its members and countries in Asia-Pacific.

Landsat false-colour mosaic of Peninsular Malaysia

Peninsular Malaysia

Landsat false-colour mosaic of Peninsular Malaysia
A map of Malaya.
The topography of Peninsular Malaysia.

Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia), also known as West Malaysia or the Malaysian Peninsula, formerly known as Malaya, is the part of Malaysia which occupies the southern half of the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia and the nearby islands.

East Asia

Eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms.

Eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms.

Three sets of possible boundaries for the Central Asia region that overlap with conceptions of East Asia
The countries of East Asia also form the core of Northeast Asia, which itself is a broader region.
East Asia map of Köppen climate classification.
Tokyo is the capital of Japan and the largest city in the world, both in metropolitan population and economy.
Taipei is the capital, financial centre of Taiwan and anchors a major high-tech industrial area in Taiwan.
Seoul is the capital of South Korea, leading global technology hub.
Shanghai is the largest city in China.
Beijing is the capital of the People's Republic of China.
Osaka is the second largest metropolitan area in Japan.
Guangzhou is one of the most important cities in southern China. It has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub today.
Nagoya is the third largest metropolitan area in Japan. Nagoya is famous as the location of Lexus headquarters.
Kyoto was the imperial capital of Japan for eleven centuries.
Ulaanbaatar is the capital of Mongolia with a population of 1 million as of 2008.
Hong Kong is one of the global financial centres and is known as a cosmopolitan metropolis.
Pyongyang is the capital of North Korea, and is a metropolis on the Korean Peninsula.
Xi'an or Chang'an is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties. It has a significant cultural influence in East Asia.

East Asia borders Siberia and the Russian Far East to the north, Southeast Asia to the south, South Asia to the southwest, and Central Asia to the west.

Cambodia

Glazed stoneware dating back to the 12th century
Khmer army going to war against the Cham, from a relief on the Bayon
A map of Indochina in 1760
Norodom Sihanouk and Mao Zedong in 1956
Rooms of the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum contain thousands of photos taken by the Khmer Rouge of their victims.
Choeung Ek, a known site of mass grave for genocide victims during the Khmer Rouge era
Antigovernment protests in support of opposition party CNRP took place in Cambodia following the 2013 general election.
Geographic map of Cambodia
Regional map of Cambodia
Köppen climate classification map of Cambodia
Macaques at Phnom Pros, Kampong Cham Province
Waterfall at Phnom Kulen
Prey Lang Forest
Norodom Sihamoni, King of Cambodia
Cambodian foreign minister Prak Sokhonn meets with U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken in Washington, D.C., 13 May 2022.
Prime minister Hun Sen with Russian president Vladimir Putin in Moscow, 19 May 2016.
Royal Cambodian Army officers marching
Left to right: Senate President Say Chhum, National Assembly President Heng Samrin and Prime Minister Hun Sen, on Independence Day, 9 November 2019.
Cambodia's deputy opposition leader Kem Sokha (left) has been arrested in September 2017 while opposition leader Sam Rainsy (right) has lived in exile since November 2015
Real GPD per capita development of Cambodia
A proportional representation of Cambodia exports, 2019
The Cambodian position on the Human Development Index, 1970–2010
Food stands in Siem Reap.
Paddy field in Siem Reap Province
Farmers harvesting rice in Battambang Province
Cambodian Exports Treemap in 2017.
Every year, nearly 2.6 million tourists visit Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia.
National Highway 4
Phnom Penh airport shuttle train
An ethnic map of Cambodia
Cambodian couple wearing traditional wedding outfit (Sompot, Sbai, Chong Kben).
Pchum Ben, also known as "Ancestors Day", is an important religious festival celebrated by Khmer Buddhists.
Cambodian medical students watching a surgery operation
The Institute of Foreign Languages of the Royal University of Phnom Penh
The 19th-century illustration tale of Vorvong & Sorvong
Boat racing during Bon Om Touk
Sinn Sisamouth, a famous Cambodian singer

Cambodia (also Kampuchea ; កម្ពុជា, Kâmpŭchéa ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

Laos

Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.
Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang Kingdom
Local Lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard, c. 1900
French General Salan and Prince Sisavang Vatthana in Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953
Ruins of Muang Khoun, former capital of Xiangkhouang province, destroyed by the American bombing of Laos in the late 1960s
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang
Paddy fields in Laos
Laos map of Köppen climate classification.
Flag of the ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and ASEAN heads of state in New Delhi on 25 January 2018
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016
Hmong girls in Laos, 1973
A proportional representation of Laos exports, 2019
GDP per capita development in Laos
Near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Vat Phou, looking back towards the Mekong River
Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane. The Buddhist stupa that is a national symbol of Laos.
Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane.
National University of Laos in Vientiane.
An example of Lao cuisine
Lao women wearing sinhs
Lao dancers during the New Year celebration
New Laos National Stadium in Vientiane.
Wat Nong Sikhounmuang - buddhist pagoda in Luang Prabang.

Laos, officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia.

Brunei

Brunei territorial losses from 1400 to 1890
Boundaries of Brunei (green) since 1890
British adventurer James Brooke negotiating with the Sultan of Brunei, which led to the signing of the Treaty of Labuan, 1846
Ahmad Tajuddin, the 27th Sultan of Brunei, with members of his court in April 1941, eight months before the Japanese invaded Brunei
Nagato, Tone, Yamato and Musashi in Brunei Bay in October 1944
Major-General Wootten of the Australian 9th Division with Lieutenant-General Masao Baba (signing) of the Japanese 37th Division at the surrender ceremony at Labuan on 10 September 1945
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III
British soldiers in the British protectorate of Brunei on guard in the Seria oilfield, January 1963
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah (right) in 2004
A topographic and geographic limits map of Brunei
Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of Brunei.
Brunei's Sultan and Foreign Minister Hassanal Bolkiah meets with U.S. President Barack Obama, 18 November 2015
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah with Indonesian President Joko Widodo, 6 October 2017
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah and Vladimir Putin during APEC 2000
Headscarves called tudong are compulsory for Brunei's Muslim schoolgirls
Brunei International Airport Mosque
A proportional representation of Brunei exports, 2019
BIMP-EAGA meeting in the office of Brunei Prime Minister on 25 April 2013. From left: Brunei Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Malaysian Representative and Filipino President Benigno Aquino III. Brunei is part of the BIMP-EAGA, a subregional economic co-operation initiative in Southeast Asia.
Royal Brunei Boeing 787 Dreamliner at London Heathrow Airport.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque at night.
Royal Regalia Museum
Nagato, Tone, Yamato and Musashi in Brunei Bay in October 1944

Brunei, formally Brunei Darussalam (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi: , ), is a country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.

Philippines

Philip II of Spain
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the oldest known writing found in the Philippines
Manila (1847)
Filipino Ilustrados in Spain formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in 1890.
General Douglas MacArthur coming ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944
The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.
Topography of the Philippines
Mayon is an active stratovolcano, located in the south of the island of Luzon
The Philippine Eagle is endemic to the forests of the country.
A male Celestial monarch seen in Bislig.
Köppen climate classification of the Philippines
Malacañan Palace is the official residence of the president of the Philippines.
President Rodrigo Duterte and U.S. President Donald Trump discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in November 2017.
BRP Jose Rizal (FF-150) is the lead ship of her class of guided missile frigates of the Philippine Navy
Administrative map of the Philippines
Dominant ethnic groups by province
A map that shows all ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines.
The historical Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the Philippine government in 1973 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines in 1993.
St. Luke's Medical Center in Taguig.
Founded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas is the oldest extant university in Asia.
Real GPD per capita development of the Philippines
A proportional representation of Philippines exports, 2019
Filipinos planting rice. Agriculture employs 23% of the Filipino workforce.
Headquarters of the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños, Laguna.
Limestone cliffs of El Nido, Palawan.
An LRT Line 2 train at Santolan station.
Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, Benguet.
A participant of the Ati-Atihan Festival.
A statue in Iriga City commemorating the mano po gesture
Colonial houses in Vigan.
Cariñosa, a Hispanic era dance for traditional Filipino courtship.
José Rizal is a pioneer of Philippine Revolution through his literary works.
Philippines men's national basketball team celebrating the 2015 Southeast Asian Games championship.

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines , is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.