Southern Africa

A composite satellite image of Southern Africa
Waterfall in the Witwatersrand region near Johannesburg
Sandton, Johannesburg, the financial centre of South Africa

Southernmost subregion of the African continent, south of the Congo and Tanzania.

- Southern Africa

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The 'Two Rhino' painting at Tsodilo, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
German map of 1905 still showing the undivided Bechuanaland area
Sechele I who led a Batswana Merafe Coalition against Boers in 1852
3 Dikgosi Monument: Khama III, Sebele I & Bathoen I who negotiated a Protectorate
Postage stamp of British-ruled Bechuanaland from 1960
Botswana map of Köppen climate classification.
Zebras roaming the Okavango Basin
The current president, Mokgweetsi Masisi
High Court of Botswana
Botswana soldiers board a Botswana Defence Force plane to Mozambique, July 2021
New Gaborone Central Business District
Graphical depiction of Botswana's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories.
GDP per capita of Botswana, 1950 to 2018
GDP per capita (current), % of world average, 1960–2012; Zimbabwe, South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique
Kazungula Bridge, connecting Botswana and Zambia
Population pyramid 2016
Gaborone Hindu Temple
Unity Dow, author of Far and Beyon, The Screaming of the Innocent and Heavens May Fall
Francistown Stadium
Physicist in a Lab at Botswana International University of Science and Technology
Deaftronics Solar Powered Hearing Aid
Cubesat miniaturized satellite
Scottish Livingstone Hospital in Molepolole
Life expectancy in select Southern African countries, 1950–2019. HIV/AIDS has caused a fall in life expectancy.
Tourist on a safari boat cruise

Botswana (, also ), officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana, ), is a landlocked country in Southern Africa.


A 19th-century Swazi container, carved in wood
Swaziland in Southern Africa, 1896
Topographic map of Eswatini
Landscape in Eswatini
Grewia villosa
Mswati III has been king of Eswatini since 1986.
Swazi army officers
A proportional representation of Swazi exports
Central Bank in Mbabane
Eswatini is part of the Southern African Customs Union (green).
Eswatini's population in thousands (1950–2021)
A rural primary school in Eswatini
King Mswati III at the reed dance festival where he will choose his next wife
Princess Sikhanyiso Dlamini (left) and Temtsimba Dlamini (right) at the reed dance (umhlanga) festival 2006
A traditional Swazi homestead
Swazi warriors at the incwala ceremony

Eswatini (eSwatini ), officially the Kingdom of Eswatini and formerly named Swaziland (officially renamed in 2018), is a landlocked country in Southern Africa.


San people are Namibia's oldest indigenous inhabitants.
German church and monument to colonists in Windhoek, Namibia.
Map depicting the Police Zone (in tan) and tribal homelands (in red) as they existed in 1978. Self-governing tribal homelands appear as tan with red stripes.
Foreign Observer identification badge issued during the 1989 Namibian election
South African troops patrol the border region for PLAN insurgents, 1980s.
Sand dunes in the Namib, Namibia
Shaded relief map of Namibia
Namibia map of Köppen climate classification zones
Fish River Canyon
Namibia is primarily a large desert and semi-desert plateau.
Quivertree Forest, Bushveld
Regions of Namibia
Historical GDP per capita development in southern african countries, since 1950
Downtown Windhoek
The B2 between Swakopmund and Walvis Bay, Namibia
Welcoming sign of the Burgsdorf farm in Hardap
An example of Namibian wildlife, the plains zebra, is one focus of tourism.
Population density in Namibia by regions (census 2011)
Himba people in northern Namibia
Afrikaner children in Namibia
Lutheran church in Swakopmund
The Namibia rugby team
Secondary school students

Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa.


Part of a larger region or continent and is usually based on location.

The UN geoscheme, created by the UN Statistics Division. For statistical consistency and convenience, each country or area is shown in one region only. For example, Russia (a transcontinental country in both Europe and Asia) has been included in Eastern Europe only

Southern Africa

South Africa

Migrations that formed the modern Rainbow nation
Mapungubwe Hill, the site of the former capital of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias planting the cross at Cape Point after being the first to successfully round the Cape of Good Hope.
Charles Davidson Bell's 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeck, who founded the first European settlement in South Africa, arrives in Table Bay in 1652
Depiction of a Zulu attack on a Boer camp in February 1838
The First Boer War was a rebellion of Boers against the British rule in the Transvaal that re-established their independence.
"For use by white persons" – apartheid sign in English and Afrikaans
FW de Klerk and Nelson Mandela shake hands in January 1992
The Central Plateau edged by the Great Escarpment, and the Cape Fold Belt
The thick line traces the Great Escarpment bordering the central plateau; the line's red portion is the Drakensberg. The Escarpment rises to its highest, over 3000 m, where it separates KwaZulu-Natal and Lesotho. No regions on the map have well-defined borders except where the Escarpment or a mountain range forms a clear dividing line
Drakensberg, the eastern and highest portion of the Great Escarpment which surrounds the east, south and western borders of the central plateau of Southern Africa
Spring flowers in Namaqualand
Köppen climate types of South Africa
South African giraffes, Kruger National Park
Subtropical forest near Durban
Lowveld vegetation of the Kruger National Park
Cape Floral Region Protected Areas
Union Buildings in Pretoria, seat of the executive
Houses of Parliament in Cape Town, seat of the legislature
Constitutional Court in Johannesburg
Soweto Pride 2012 participants protest against violence against lesbians. The country has strong human rights laws but some groups are still discriminated against. It is the first country in Africa to recognise same sex marriage
SANDF soldiers
Provinces of South Africa
Change in per capita GDP of South Africa, 1700–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Annual per capita personal income by race group in South Africa relative to white levels
A proportional representation of South Africa exports, 2019
The Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) is the largest stock exchange on the African continent
Workers packing pears for export in the Ceres Valley, Western Cape
Mark Shuttleworth in space
Schoolchildren in Mitchell's Plain
Life expectancy in select Southern African countries, 1950–2019. HIV/AIDS has caused a fall in life expectancy.
Rock painting of an eland, Drakensberg
Olive Schreiner
A plate of freshly prepared Babotie, a meat-based meal which originated within South Africa.
Kagiso Rabada, South African cricketer
The Springboks in a bus parade after winning the 2007 Rugby World Cup

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

Tropic of Capricorn

Circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point at the December (or southern) solstice.

World map showing the Tropic of Capricorn
Relationship of Earth's axial tilt (ε) to the tropical and polar circles

In most of this belt of southern Africa, a minimum of seasonal rainfall is reliable and farming is possible, though yields struggle to compete with for example the Mississippi basin, even against like-to-like soil fertilisers.


King João I, Manikongo of the Kingdom of Kongo
Coat of arms granted to King Afonso I of Kongo by King Manuel I of Portugal
Queen Ana de Sousa of Ndongo meeting with the Portuguese, 1657
Depiction of Luanda from 1755
History of Angola; written in Luanda in 1680.
Portuguese Armed Forces marching in Luanda during the Portuguese Colonial Wars (1961–74).
Members of the National Liberation Front of Angola training in 1973.
Agostinho Neto, first President of Angola.
Maximum extent of UNITA and South African operations in Angola and Zambia during the Angolan Civil War.
Cuban tank in Luanda during the Cuban intervention in Angola, 1976
Luanda is experiencing widespread urban renewal and redevelopment in the 21st century, backed largely by profits from oil & diamond industries.
Topography of Angola.
Map of Angola with the provinces numbered
Provincial Government of Huambo.
Provincial Government of Namibe.
The National Assembly of Angola.
João Lourenço, President of Angola
Soldiers of the Angolan Armed Forces in full dress uniform.
Angolan National Police officers.
Foreign Minister of Angola Manuel Domingos Augusto.
Diplomatic missions of Angola.
A proportional representation of Angola exports, 2019
GDP per capita 1950 to 2018
The National Bank of Angola.
Luanda Financial City.
Tourism in Angola has grown with the country's economy and stability.
Corporate headquarters in Luanda
An offshore oil drilling platform off the coast of central Angola
Capanda Dam on the Cuanza
TAAG Angola Airlines is the country's state-owned national carrier.
Catumbela Bridge in Benguela.
Lobito hosts a major seaport.
Luanda's construction boom is financed largely by oil and diamonds.
Population Pyramid of Angola in 2020.
Portuguese colonial architecture in the historic center of Benguela.
Roman Catholic Luanda Cathedral.
Catholic church of Uaco Cungo.
Lucrécia Paím Maternity Hospital.
Agostinho Neto University.
A primary school in Province of Cuanza Sul
Mutu-ya Kevela Prep. School
Agostinho Neto National Memorial in Luanda.
Yombe sculpture.
National Museum of Anthropology.
The National Stadium in Benguela.
Angola map of Köppen climate classification.
Historical ethnic divisions of Angola

Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola), is a country on the West coast of Southern Africa.


The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographical and climate zones located to the north and south of the Tropics.

Areas of the world with subtropical climates according to Köppen climate classification
The subtropics and tropics
Homes in Charleston, South Carolina along The Battery
Hadley cells located on the Earth's atmospheric circulation.
Live oak with araucarias in Curitiba, Brazil
Wetland Park in Hong Kong.
Fynbos in South Africa
Acacia in HaMakhtesh HaGadol, Negev Desert

Examples of this climate are the coastal areas of Southern Africa and the west coast of South America.


Country located in Southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Eswatini (Swaziland) and South Africa to the southwest.

Mozambican dhow
Arab-Swahili slave traders and their captives on the Ruvuma River
The Island of Mozambique is a small coral island at the mouth of Mossuril Bay on the Nacala coast of northern Mozambique, first explored by Europeans in the late 15th century.
View of the Central Avenue in Lourenço Marques, now Maputo, ca. 1905
Portuguese language printing and typesetting class, 1930
Portuguese troops during the Portuguese Colonial War, some loading FN FAL and G3
A land mine victim in Mozambique
The geopolitical situation in 1975, nations friendly to the FRELIMO are shown in orange
A US helicopter flying over the flooded Limpopo River during the 2000 Mozambique flood
Satellite image
Mozambique map of Köppen climate classification zones
Incumbent President Filipe Nyusi
Maputo City Hall
A section of the crowd at its final campaign rally for the 2014 election
Mozambique's embassy in Washington, D.C.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi meets members of Indian community in Mozambique, 7 July 2016
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Mozambique, since 1960
A proportional representation of Mozambique's exports
Traditional sailboat in Ilha de Moçambique
European tourists on the beach, in Inhambane, Mozambique
Vilanculos beach Mozambique
Carrying goods on head in Mozambique
Steam locomotive at Inhambane, 2009
National Mozambican airline, LAM Mozambique
Woman fetching water during the dry season from a polluted source in Machaze District of the Central Manica Province
Ethnic map of Mozambique
Population pyramid 2016
The increase in the number of HIV positive Mozambicans on Antiretroviral treatment, 2003–14
Woman with traditional mask in Mozambique
Island of Mozambique, 2016
Headquarters of Rádio Moçambique in KaMpfumo district of Maputo (photo 2009)
Lebombo Mountains
Gorongosa National Park
Island of Mozambique
Monte Binga
Ponta do Ouro
Pupils in front of their school in Nampula, Mozambique
School children in the classroom

Bantu-speaking people's migration into Mozambique dates as far back as the 4th century BC. It's believed between the 1st and 5th centuries AD, waves of migration from the west and north went through the Zambezi River valley and then gradually into the plateau and coastal areas of Southern Africa.

Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate climates (sometimes tepid climates) of Earth occur in the middle latitudes (40° to 60° N/S of Equator), which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

An updated Köppen–Geiger climate map of temperate climates
The different geographical zones of the world. The temperate zones, in the sense of geographical regions defined by latitude, span from either north or south of the subtropics (north or south of the yellow dotted lines, at 35 degrees north or south) to the polar circles.
Regions where the humid (Cfa) and dry-winter subtropical (Cwa) climates are found.
Regions where the dry-summer subtropical or Mediterranean climates (Csa, Csb) are found.
Regions where oceanic climates (Cfb, Cfc, Cwb, Cwc) are found.

The biggest described number of taxa in a temperate region is found in southern Africa, where some 24,000 taxa (species and infraspecific taxa) have been described, but the native fauna and flora of this region does not have much cultural importance for the majority of the human population of the world that lives in the Temperate Zones of the Northern Hemisphere, only environmental importance.