Southern Hemisphere

SouthernaustralS. Hemispherehemispheresouthsouthern-hemisphereSouthern latitudessouthern skywintertimeaustral summer
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.wikipedia
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Antarctica

AntarcticAntarctic continentReference Elevation Model of Antarctica
It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, one third of Africa, and several islands off the continental mainland of Asia), four oceans (Indian, South Atlantic, Southern, and South Pacific) and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania.
It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.

South America

South AmericanSouthSouth-America
It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, one third of Africa, and several islands off the continental mainland of Asia), four oceans (Indian, South Atlantic, Southern, and South Pacific) and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

Equator

equatorial planeThe Equator
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
It is the imaginary line on the spheroid, equidistant from its poles, dividing it into northern and southern hemispheres.

Africa

African continentAfricanAfrican politics
It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, one third of Africa, and several islands off the continental mainland of Asia), four oceans (Indian, South Atlantic, Southern, and South Pacific) and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania.
The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere.

Australia (continent)

AustraliaAustralian continentSahul
It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, one third of Africa, and several islands off the continental mainland of Asia), four oceans (Indian, South Atlantic, Southern, and South Pacific) and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania.
His ideas were later expanded by Ptolemy (2nd century AD), who believed that the lands of the Northern Hemisphere should be balanced by land in the south.

December

No Gender December
Owing to the tilt of Earth's rotation relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane, summer is from December to March and winter is from June to September.
December contains the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, the day with the fewest daylight hours, and the summer solstice in the Southern Hemisphere, the day with the most daylight hours (excluding polar regions in both cases).

Summer

summer seasonaustral summersummers
Owing to the tilt of Earth's rotation relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane, summer is from December to March and winter is from June to September.
When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere, and vice versa.

Winter

austral wintermeteorological winterwintering
Owing to the tilt of Earth's rotation relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane, summer is from December to March and winter is from June to September.
When it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere, it is summer in the Southern Hemisphere, and vice versa.

South Pole

90Geographic South PoleSouth
The South Pole is in the center of the southern hemispherical region.
The South Pole is at the center of the Southern Hemisphere.

Equinox

autumnal equinoxautumn equinoxequinoxes
September 22 or 23 is the vernal equinox and March 20 or 21 is the autumnal equinox.
In the Southern Hemisphere, the reverse is true.

Oceania

South PacificPacificSouthwest Pacific
It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, one third of Africa, and several islands off the continental mainland of Asia), four oceans (Indian, South Atlantic, Southern, and South Pacific) and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania.
In its periphery, Oceania sprawls 28 degrees north to the Bonin Islands in the northern hemisphere, and 55 degrees south to Macquarie Island in the southern hemisphere.

Coriolis force

Coriolis effectCoriolisCoriolis acceleration
Cyclones and tropical storms spin clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere (as opposed to anticlockwise in the Northern Hemisphere) due to the Coriolis effect.
This force causes moving objects on the surface of the Earth to be deflected to the right (with respect to the direction of travel) in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.

Nothofagus

southern beechNothofagaceaebeech
Both Chile and Australia share, for example, unique beech species or Nothofagus, and New Zealand has members of the closely related genera Lophozonia and Fuscospora.
Nothofagus, also known as the southern beeches, is a genus of 43 species of trees and shrubs native to the Southern Hemisphere in southern South America (Chile, Argentina) and Australasia (east and southeast Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and New Caledonia).

Northern Hemisphere

NorthernNorth HemisphereNorthern Hemispheric
Its surface is 80.9% water, compared with 60.7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains 32.7% of Earth's land.
Its surface is 60.7% water, compared with 80.9% water in the case of the Southern Hemisphere, and it contains 67.3% of Earth's land.

Borneo

BorneanBorneo Islandisland of Borneo
The most populous nation in the Southern Hemisphere is Indonesia, with 261 million people (roughly 30 million of whom live north of the Equator on the northern portions of the islands of Sumatra, Borneo, and Sulawesi, while the rest of the population lives in the Southern Hemisphere).
A little more than half of the island is in the Northern Hemisphere including Brunei and the Malaysian portion, while the Indonesian portion spans both the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

São Paulo

Sao PauloSão Paulo, BrazilSao Paulo, Brazil
The largest metropolitan areas in the Southern Hemisphere are São Paulo (21 million people), Jakarta (30 million people), Buenos Aires (12 million people), Rio de Janeiro (11 million people), Kinshasa (11 million people), Lima (10 million), Santiago (6 million) and Sydney (5 million).
The metropolis is an alpha global city (as listed by the GaWC) and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world, and the largest city south of the Tropic of Capricorn.

March

farchMarch 20military march
Owing to the tilt of Earth's rotation relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane, summer is from December to March and winter is from June to September.

Portuguese language

PortuguesePortuguese-languageBrazilian Portuguese
Portuguese is the most spoken language in the Southern Hemisphere, followed by Spanish and Javanese.
With approximately 215 to 220 million native speakers and 250 million total speakers, Portuguese is usually listed as the sixth most natively spoken language in the world, the third-most spoken European language in the world in terms of native speakers, and the most spoken language in the Southern Hemisphere.

Earth's rotation

rotation of the EarthrotationEarth rotates
Owing to the tilt of Earth's rotation relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane, summer is from December to March and winter is from June to September.
Because of the Coriolis effect, falling bodies veer slightly eastward from the vertical plumb line below their point of release, and projectiles veer right in the Northern Hemisphere (and left in the Southern) from the direction in which they are shot.

Sundial

sundialssun dialsun clock
Sun-cast shadows turn anticlockwise throughout the day and sundials have the hours increasing in the anticlockwise direction.
A vertical direct south sundial in the Northern Hemisphere becomes a vertical direct north sundial in the Southern Hemisphere.

Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro, BrazilRioNorth Zone
The largest metropolitan areas in the Southern Hemisphere are São Paulo (21 million people), Jakarta (30 million people), Buenos Aires (12 million people), Rio de Janeiro (11 million people), Kinshasa (11 million people), Lima (10 million), Santiago (6 million) and Sydney (5 million).
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, Carnival, samba, bossa nova, and balneario beaches such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana, Ipanema, and Leblon.

Argentina

ArgentineARGArgentinian
This zone includes the southern tip of Uruguay and South Africa; the southern half of Chile and Argentina; parts of Australia, going south from Adelaide, and all of New Zealand.
Argentina's highest point is Aconcagua in the Mendoza province (6959 m above sea level), also the highest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres.

Southern Ocean

Antarctic OceanSouthernSouth Seas
It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, one third of Africa, and several islands off the continental mainland of Asia), four oceans (Indian, South Atlantic, Southern, and South Pacific) and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania.
Several processes operate along the coast of Antarctica to produce, in the Southern Ocean, types of water masses not produced elsewhere in the oceans of the Southern Hemisphere.

South Africa

South AfricanRepublic of South AfricaRSA
This zone includes the southern tip of Uruguay and South Africa; the southern half of Chile and Argentina; parts of Australia, going south from Adelaide, and all of New Zealand.
South Africa has a generally temperate climate, due in part to being surrounded by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans on three sides, by its location in the climatically milder Southern Hemisphere and due to the average elevation rising steadily towards the north (towards the equator) and further inland.

Earth

Earth's surfaceterrestrialworld
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
This causes the seasonal change in climate, with summer in the Northern Hemisphere occurring when the Tropic of Cancer is facing the Sun, and winter taking place when the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere faces the Sun.