Southern Manifesto

The Southern ManifestoThe Southern Manifesto.Declaration of Constitutional Principles
The Declaration of Constitutional Principles (known informally as the Southern Manifesto) was a document written in February and March 1956, in the United States Congress, in opposition to racial integration of public places.wikipedia
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Sam Rayburn

Samuel T. RayburnRayburnSamuel Taliaferro Rayburn
However, along with Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives Sam Rayburn of Texas, three Southern Senate Democrats refused to sign: Albert Gore Sr. and Estes Kefauver of Tennessee, and Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas.
He refused to sign the Southern Manifesto and was influential in the construction of U.S. Route 66.

Richard Russell Jr.

Richard Russell, Jr.Richard RussellRichard B. Russell
Senators led the opposition, with Strom Thurmond writing the initial draft and Richard Russell the final version.
Russell supported racial segregation and co-authored the Southern Manifesto with Strom Thurmond.

J. William Fulbright

William FulbrightFulbrightJ. W. Fulbright
A Southern Democrat and a staunch multilateralist who supported the creation of the United Nations, he was also a segregationist who signed the Southern Manifesto.

Strom Thurmond

J. Strom ThurmondThurmondJames Strom Thurmond
Senators led the opposition, with Strom Thurmond writing the initial draft and Richard Russell the final version.
He wrote the first version of the Southern Manifesto, announcing southern disagreement with the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education, which ruled that public school segregation was unconstitutional.

John Sparkman

John J. SparkmanSparkmanJohn Jackson Sparkman
Known as a segregationist proponent during the Civil Rights era, Sparkman was a regular voter against civil rights legislation and condemned the "judicial usurpation" of the Supreme Court decision of Brown v. Board of Education, Sparkman signed the 1956 Southern Manifesto, which pledged opposition to racial integration and promised to use "all lawful means" to fight the ruling that put court power behind the integration of public institutions.

Allen J. Ellender

Allen EllenderAllen Joseph EllenderEllender
A staunch segregationist, he signed the Southern Manifesto in 1956, voted against the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and opposed anti-lynching legislation in 1938.

John C. Stennis

John StennisJohn C. Stennis Center for Public Service Training and DevelopmentStennis
He signed the Southern Manifesto, which called for resistance to the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education.

J. Lister Hill

Lister HillJoseph Lister HillJoseph Hill
In 1954, Hill signed "The Southern Manifesto" condemning the Supreme Court's 9-0 decision in Brown vs Board of Education ordering school desegregation, but remained a close friend of Supreme Court Justice and fellow Alabamian Hugo Black who voted for the decision.

Albert Gore Sr.

Albert Gore, Sr.Al Gore, Sr.Albert A. Gore Sr.
However, along with Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives Sam Rayburn of Texas, three Southern Senate Democrats refused to sign: Albert Gore Sr. and Estes Kefauver of Tennessee, and Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas.
Gore was one of only three Democratic senators from the former Confederate states who did not sign the 1956 Southern Manifesto opposing integration, the others being Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas (who was not asked to sign), and Tennessee's other senator, Estes Kefauver.

Richard Harding Poff

Richard H. PoffRichard PoffDick Poff
All of the signatories were Southern Democrats except two Virginia Republicans, Joel Broyhill and Richard Poff.
He and Joel Broyhill of Virginia were the only two Republicans, along with the rest of Virginia's entire Congressional delegation, and nearly all members from Southern states, to sign the Southern Manifesto protesting the Supreme Court's mandate in Brown v. Board of Education to desegregate public schools.

Price Daniel

Marion Price Daniel, Sr.Price Daniel, Sr.Governor Price Daniel
Opposed to desegregation efforts, Senator Price Daniel joined 19 other Senators and 77 members of the United States House of Representatives in signing the 1956 Southern Manifesto, which condemned the 1954 United States Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education, and encouraged states to resist implementing it.

Sam Ervin

Sam J. ErvinSam J. Ervin Jr.Sam J. Ervin, Jr.
In 1956, Senator Ervin helped organize resistance to the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision calling for desegregation of schools by drafting The Southern Manifesto; this influential document encouraged defiance of desegregation and was signed by all but a few of the Southern members of Congress.

George Smathers

George A. SmathersSmathers, George A.
In 1956, Smathers signed the Southern Manifesto, together with eighteen of the other twenty-one U.S. Senators from the eleven states of the South, condemning the Supreme Court decision to desegregate the public school system.

Estes Kefauver

KefauverC. Estes KefauverCarey E. Kefauver
However, along with Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives Sam Rayburn of Texas, three Southern Senate Democrats refused to sign: Albert Gore Sr. and Estes Kefauver of Tennessee, and Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas.
These positions made him even more unpopular with his state party's machine than ever before, especially after fellow Tennessee Senator Albert Gore, Sr., Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas, and he became the only three southern Senators to not sign the so-called Southern Manifesto in 1956.

Carl Elliott

Carl Elliott, Sr.
The same year, he was one of 101 politicians to sign the Southern Manifesto in opposition to racial integration of public places.

Spessard Holland

Spessard L. HollandSpessard Lindsey Holland
Re-elected in 1952, he, along with all other senators from the former Confederate states (except Lyndon B. Johnson, Estes Kefauver, and Albert Gore, Sr.), signed the 1956 "Southern Manifesto", which condemned the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), declaring that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional, and promised to resist its implementation.

Armistead I. Selden Jr.

Armistead I. Selden, Jr.Armistead SeldenArmistead Inge Selden
While in Congress he was a signatory to the 1956 Southern Manifesto that opposed the desegregation of public schools ordered by the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education.

John L. McClellan

John Little McClellanJohn McClellanMcClellan
In 1956, McClellan was one of 82 representatives and 19 senators who signed the Southern Manifesto in opposition to the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education and racial integration.

W. Kerr Scott

William Kerr ScottKerr ScottGovernor and U. S. Senator Kerr Scott
He was a signatory of the Southern Manifesto, objecting to the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education that state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students are unconstitutional.

Olin D. Johnston

Olin JohnstonOlin B. JohnstonJohnston
However, like virtually all other politicians from the Deep South during this period, Johnston was regionally orthodox on the "race question", opposing all civil rights legislation and signing the 1956 Southern Manifesto that opposed the desegregation of public schools ordered by the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education.

Robert E. Jones Jr.

Robert E. Jones, Jr.Bob JonesRobert "Bob" Jones
Having been a signatory to the 1956 Southern Manifesto that opposed the desegregation of public schools ordered by the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education, he voted against HR 6127, the Civil Rights Act of 1957.

George M. Grant

Having signed the 1956 Southern Manifesto that opposed the desegregation of public schools ordered by the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education, in 1957 he voted against the Civil Rights Act of 1957.

William C. Cramer

William CramerWilliam Cato Cramer
Despite this, Cramer had been one of the few Southern Congressmen not to sign the 1956 anti-desegregation Southern Manifesto.

George W. Andrews

George William AndrewsGeorge Andrewsher husband
He was a signatory to the 1956 Southern Manifesto that opposed the desegregation of public schools ordered by the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education.

Wilbur Mills

Wilbur D. MillsMillsWilbur Daigh Mills
He was a signatory to the 1956 Southern Manifesto that opposed the desegregation of public schools ordered by the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education.