Southern Ocean

SouthernAntarcticSouth SeasAntarctic OceanAntarctic waterssouthern oceansGreat Southern OceanSouthern (or Antarctic) Oceanthe surrounding oceanAntarctic regions
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.wikipedia
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Antarctica

Antarctic🇦🇶Antarctic continent
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.
It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.

Indian Ocean

IndianIndoWestern Indian Ocean
As such, it is regarded as the fourth-largest of the five principal oceanic divisions: smaller than the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans but larger than the Arctic Ocean.
It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, and on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica.

Subantarctic

sub-AntarcticList of subantarctic glaciersSubantarctic Islands
This ocean zone is where cold, northward flowing waters from the Antarctic mix with warmer subantarctic waters.
The ACC is the most important ocean current in the Southern Ocean, and the only current that flows completely around the Earth.

Western Australia

WAWest AustralianWestern Australian
The detailed land-limits used were from Cape Horn in South America eastwards to Cape Agulhas in Africa, then further eastwards to the southern coast of mainland Australia to Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia.
It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, and the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east and South Australia to the south-east.

Bass Strait

Bass Strait IslandsBass StraightBass
From Cape Leeuwin, the limit then followed eastwards along the coast of mainland Australia to Cape Otway, Victoria, then southwards across Bass Strait to Cape Wickham, King Island, along the west coast of King Island, then the remainder of the way south across Bass Strait to Cape Grim, Tasmania.
The Australian Hydrographic Service does not consider it to be part of the Southern Ocean, using the expanded Australian definition, and states that it lies with the Tasman Sea.

Pacific Ocean

PacificWestern PacificSouth Pacific
As such, it is regarded as the fourth-largest of the five principal oceanic divisions: smaller than the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans but larger than the Arctic Ocean.
It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.

World Ocean

oceanoceansglobal ocean
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.
It is divided into a number of principal oceanic areas that are delimited by the continents and various oceanographic features: these divisions are the Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean (sometimes considered a sea of the Atlantic), Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Southern Ocean, defined by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) in 2000, based on evidence that this region of the World Ocean has a distinct ecosystem and a unique impact on global climate.

Atlantic Ocean

AtlanticNorth AtlanticAtlantic coast
As such, it is regarded as the fourth-largest of the five principal oceanic divisions: smaller than the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans but larger than the Arctic Ocean.
As one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, and the Southern Ocean in the south (other definitions describe the Atlantic as extending southward to Antarctica).

History of Victoria

colony of VictoriaVictoriaEuropean settlement
The Colony of Victoria's Legislative Council Act of 1881 delimited part of the division of Bairnsdale as "along the New South Wales boundary to the Southern ocean".
Ships sailing from the United Kingdom to Sydney crossed the Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean, sailing around Van Diemen's Land before turning north to their destination.

Scotia Sea

Scotia
The new delineation of seas being subdivisions of oceans has avoided the need to interrupt the northern boundary of the Southern Ocean where intersected by Drake Passage which includes all of the waters from South America to the Antarctic coast, nor interrupt it for the Scotia Sea, which also extends below the 60th parallel south.
The Scotia Sea is a sea located at the northern edge of the Southern Ocean at its boundary with the South Atlantic Ocean.

Cosmonauts Sea

Despite this, the 4th edition definition has partial de facto usage by many nations, scientists and organisations such as the U.S. (the Central Intelligence Agency World Factbook uses "Southern Ocean" but none of the other new sea names within the "Southern Ocean" such as "Cosmonauts Sea") and Merriam-Webster, scientists and nations – and even by some within the IHO.
Cosmonauts Sea (Море Космонавтов, More Kosmonavtov; sometimes misspelled Cosmonaut Sea) was a proposed sea name as part of the Southern Ocean, off the Prince Olav Coast and Enderby Land, Antarctica, between about 30°E and 50°E.

South Australia

SASouth AustralianSouth
The United Kingdom's South Australia Act 1834 described the waters forming the southern limit of the new colony of South Australia as "the Southern Ocean".
According to Australian maps, South Australia's south coast is flanked by the Southern Ocean, but official international consensus defines the Southern Ocean as extending north from the pole only to 60°S or 55°S, at least 17 degrees of latitude further south than the most southern point of South Australia.

South Australia Act 1834

South Australia Act1834 South Australia ActAct
The United Kingdom's South Australia Act 1834 described the waters forming the southern limit of the new colony of South Australia as "the Southern Ocean".
It provided for the settlement of a province or multiple provinces on the lands between 132 degrees east and 141 degrees of east longitude, and between the Southern Ocean, and 26 degrees south latitude, including the islands adjacent to the coastline.

60th parallel south

60°S60° South60
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. The first land south of the parallel 60° south latitude was discovered by the Englishman William Smith, who sighted Livingston Island on 19 February 1819.
The parallel marks the northern limit of the Southern Ocean (though some organisations and countries, notably Australia, have other definitions) and of the Antarctic Treaty System.

Drake Passage

Drake Straitopening of the Drake PassageSea of Hoces
The new delineation of seas being subdivisions of oceans has avoided the need to interrupt the northern boundary of the Southern Ocean where intersected by Drake Passage which includes all of the waters from South America to the Antarctic coast, nor interrupt it for the Scotia Sea, which also extends below the 60th parallel south.
It connects the southwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean (Scotia Sea) with the southeastern part of the Pacific Ocean and extends into the Southern Ocean.

Cape Leeuwin

LeeuwinCape Leeuwin, Western Australia, AUSLeeuwin Lighthouse
The detailed land-limits used were from Cape Horn in South America eastwards to Cape Agulhas in Africa, then further eastwards to the southern coast of mainland Australia to Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia.
In Australia, the Cape is considered the point where the Indian Ocean meets the Southern Ocean; however most other nations and bodies consider the Southern Ocean to only exist south of 60°S.

Weddell Sea

Weddell
Another two days' sailing would have brought him to Coat's Land (to the east of the Weddell Sea) but Weddell decided to turn back.
The Weddell Sea is part of the Southern Ocean and contains the Weddell Gyre.

Tasmania

TasVan Diemen's LandTasmanian
From Cape Leeuwin, the limit then followed eastwards along the coast of mainland Australia to Cape Otway, Victoria, then southwards across Bass Strait to Cape Wickham, King Island, along the west coast of King Island, then the remainder of the way south across Bass Strait to Cape Grim, Tasmania.
Winter maximums are 12 °C on average along coastal areas and 3 °C on the central plateau, as a result of a series of cold fronts from the Southern Ocean.

Livingston Island

Livingstoneastern Livingston Island
The first land south of the parallel 60° south latitude was discovered by the Englishman William Smith, who sighted Livingston Island on 19 February 1819.
Livingston is situated in the Southern Ocean 110 km to the northwest of Cape Roquemaurel on the Antarctic mainland, 809 km to the south-southeast of Cape Horn in South America, 796 km to the southeast of the Diego Ramirez Islands (the southernmost land of South America), 1063 km due south of the Falkland Islands, 1571 km to the southwest of South Georgia Islands, and 3040 km from the South Pole.

King George Island (South Shetland Islands)

King George IslandIsla Rey Jorge (King George Island)King George
A few months later Smith returned to explore the other islands of the South Shetlands archipelago, landed on King George Island, and claimed the new territories for Britain.
King George Island (Argentina: Isla 25 de Mayo, Chile: Isla Rey Jorge, Russian: Ватерло́о Vaterloo) is the largest of the South Shetland Islands, lying 120 km off the coast of Antarctica in the Southern Ocean.

Great Australian Bight

Bightsouthern coast
The Great Australian Bight was unnamed in the 1928 edition, and delineated as shown in the figure above in the 1937 edition.
The AHS considers it to be part of the Southern Ocean, using the expanded Australian definition used for this ocean.

64th parallel south

64° S64°11'S
The Spaniard Gabriel de Castilla, who claimed having sighted "snow-covered mountains" beyond the 64° S in 1603, is recognized as the first explorer that discovered the continent of Antarctica, although he was ignored in his time.
It crosses the Southern Ocean and Antarctica.

Balleny Islands

They sailed into the Antarctic Ocean, as it was then known, and reported the discovery "of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny Islands" on 25 January 1840.
The Balleny Islands (-66.91667°N, 163.75°W) are a series of uninhabited islands in the Southern Ocean extending from 66°15' to 67°35'S and 162°30' to 165°00'E.

Ross Sea

RossRod Bay in the Ross SeaRoss Sea Region Marine Protected Area
Explorer James Clark Ross passed through what is now known as the Ross Sea and discovered Ross Island (both of which were named for him) in 1841.
The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica, between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land and within the Ross Embayment, and is the southernmost sea on Earth.

James Weddell

WeddellSir James WeddellWeddel
In a voyage from 1822 to 1824, James Weddell commanded the 160-ton brig Jane, accompanied by his second ship Beaufoy captained by Matthew Brisbane.
James Weddell (24 August 1787 in Ostend – 9 September 1834) was a British sailor, navigator and seal hunter who in February 1823 sailed to latitude of 74°15′S (a record 7.69 degrees or 532 statute miles south of the Antarctic Circle) and into a region of the Southern Ocean that later became known as the Weddell Sea.