Sovereign state

statestatessovereign statessovereignCountrysovereign nationAdmissionstatehoodstate partiespolitical entities
In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.wikipedia
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Sovereignty

sovereignsovereign entitysovereign nation
In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. State refers to the set of governing and supportive institutions that have sovereignty over a definite territory and population. Sovereign states are legal persons.
The current notion of state sovereignty contains four aspects consisting of territory, population, authority and recognition.

International relations

international affairsinternational politicsforeign relations
International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states.
In all cases, the field studies relationships between political entities (polities) such as sovereign states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), other non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs), and the wider world-systems produced by this interaction.

Diplomatic recognition

recognizedrecognitioninternational recognition
While according to the declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states, unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states. For a list of entities that wish to be universally recognised as sovereign states, but do not have complete worldwide diplomatic recognition, see the list of states with limited recognition.
Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).

State (polity)

statestatesthe state
It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state. State refers to the set of governing and supportive institutions that have sovereignty over a definite territory and population. Sovereign states are legal persons.
The term "state" also applies to federated states that are members of a federation, which is the sovereign state.

Nation state

nation-statecountrynation-states
Westphalian sovereignty is the concept of nation-state sovereignty based on territoriality and the absence of a role for external agents in domestic structures.
Walker Connor discusses the impressions surrounding the characters of "nation", "(sovereign) state", "nation state", and "nationalism".

Centralized government

centralismcentralistcentralized
In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
In a national context, centralization occurs in the transfer of power to a typically sovereign nation state.

Peace of Westphalia

Treaty of WestphaliaTreaty of Münster1648
It is an international system of states, multinational corporations, and organizations that began with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.
A new system of political order arose in central Europe, based upon peaceful coexistence among sovereign states.

Peremptory norm

jus cogensius cogensnorm
Sovereignty has taken on a different meaning with the development of the principle of self-determination and the prohibition against the threat or use of force as jus cogens norms of modern international law.
A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens or ius cogens ; Latin for "compelling law") is a fundamental principle of international law that is accepted by the international community of states as a norm from which no derogation is permitted.

Country

countriesnationalconstituent republics
In casual usage, the terms "country", "nation", and "state" are often used as if they were synonymous; but in stricter usage, they can be distinguished:
A country may be an independent sovereign state or part of a larger state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics.

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechTCH
L.C. Green cited the recognition of the unborn Polish and Czechoslovak states in World War I and explained that "since recognition of statehood is a matter of discretion, it is open to any existing State to accept as a state any entity it wishes, regardless of the existence of territory or of an established government."
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia ( Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko ), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

Poland

🇵🇱PolishPOL
L.C. Green cited the recognition of the unborn Polish and Czechoslovak states in World War I and explained that "since recognition of statehood is a matter of discretion, it is open to any existing State to accept as a state any entity it wishes, regardless of the existence of territory or of an established government."
In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, the sovereign state of Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic.

Great power

great powersmajor powerworld power
In 1815, at the Congress of Vienna the Final Act recognised only 39 sovereign states in the European diplomatic system, and as a result it was firmly established that in the future new states would have to be recognised by other states, and that meant in practice recognition by one or more of the great powers.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

Montevideo Convention

convention of 1933 on the rights and duties of statesConvention on Rights and Duties of StatesInter-American Conference
The declarative model was most famously expressed in the 1933 Montevideo Convention.
The Convention codifies the declarative theory of statehood as accepted as part of customary international law.

International law

public international lawinternationallaw of nations
In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. Sovereignty has taken on a different meaning with the development of the principle of self-determination and the prohibition against the threat or use of force as jus cogens norms of modern international law.
During the 20th century, it was recognized by legal positivists that a sovereign state could limit its authority to act by consenting to an agreement according to the principle pacta sunt servanda.

Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence

Unilateral Declaration of IndependenceUDIunilaterally declared independence
In the case of Rhodesia, recognition was widely withheld when the white minority seized power and attempted to form a state along the lines of Apartheid South Africa, a move that the United Nations Security Council described as the creation of an "illegal racist minority régime".
The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) was a statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state.

Self-determination

self determinationright to self-determinationright of self-determination
Sovereignty has taken on a different meaning with the development of the principle of self-determination and the prohibition against the threat or use of force as jus cogens norms of modern international law.
Most sovereign states do not recognize the right to self-determination through secession in their constitutions.

Legal person

legal personalitylegal entitybody corporate
State refers to the set of governing and supportive institutions that have sovereignty over a definite territory and population. Sovereign states are legal persons.
Sovereign states are legal persons.

State of Palestine

PalestinePalestinianPalestinian state
The PLO and Palestinian Authority claim that the State of Palestine is a sovereign state, a claim which has been recognised by most states, though the territory it claims is under the de facto control of Israel.
Palestine, officially the State of Palestine, is a de jure sovereign state in Western Asia claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.

Government in exile

government-in-exileexile governmentin exile
For example, during the Second World War, governments-in-exile of a number of continental European states continued to enjoy diplomatic relations with the Allies, notwithstanding that their countries were under Nazi occupation.
A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country.

List of states with limited recognition

states with limited recognitionunrecognisedunrecognized state
For a list of entities that wish to be universally recognised as sovereign states, but do not have complete worldwide diplomatic recognition, see the list of states with limited recognition.
A number of polities have declared independence and sought diplomatic recognition from the international community as de jure sovereign states, but have not been universally recognised as such.

Failed state

political instabilityfailed statespolitical stability
Failed state
A failed state is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly (see also fragile state and state collapse).

List of sovereign states

CountrySovereign statesovereign country
List of sovereign states (by formation date)
The following is a list providing an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

Federated state

statefederal statestates
Federated state
Such states differ from fully sovereign states, in that they do not have full sovereign powers, as the sovereign powers have been divided between the federated states and the central or federal government.

List of sovereign states by date of formation

1956by formation datecountries
List of sovereign states (by formation date)
Below is a list of sovereign states with the dates of their formation (date of their independence or of their constitution), sorted by continent.

List of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent

By continentList of countries by continentList of countries and territories by continent
List of sovereign states and dependent territories by continent
This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories of the world by continent, displayed with their respective national flags, including the following entities: