A report on Sovereign state

Member states of the United Nations (UN), as defined by the UN.
De facto map of control of the world, May 2019
Member states of the United Nations (UN), as defined by the UN (blue), as well as observer states (green), non-member states (orange), and non-self-governing territories (grey).

Political entity represented by one centralized government that has supreme legitimate authority over territory.

- Sovereign state
Member states of the United Nations (UN), as defined by the UN.

22 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Hittite version of the Treaty of Kadesh, among the earliest extant examples of an international agreement.

International law

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Set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nations.

Set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nations.

The Hittite version of the Treaty of Kadesh, among the earliest extant examples of an international agreement.
Hugo Grotius' De jure belli ac pacis, is considered one of the foundational texts of international law. (Pictured is the title page from the second edition of 1631).
A portrait of the Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius (alias Hugo de Groot)
Sir Alberico Gentili is regarded as the Father of international law.
The First Geneva Convention (1864) is one of the earliest formulations of international law

During the 20th century, it was recognized by legal positivists that a sovereign state could limit its authority to act by consenting to an agreement according to the contract principle pacta sunt servanda.

United Nations

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Intergovernmental organization whose purposes are to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.

Intergovernmental organization whose purposes are to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.

Members of the United Nations
1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the UN original three branches: The Four Policemen, an executive branch, and an international assembly of forty UN member states
The UN in 1945: founding members in light blue, protectorates and territories of the founding members in dark blue
Dag Hammarskjöld was a particularly active secretary-general from 1953 until his death in 1961.
Kofi Annan, secretary-general from 1997 to 2006
Flags of member nations at the United Nations Headquarters, seen in 2007
Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet general secretary, addressing the UN General Assembly in December 1988
Colin Powell, the US Secretary of State, demonstrates a vial with alleged Iraq chemical weapon probes to the UN Security Council on Iraq war hearings, 5 February 2003
Current secretary-general, António Guterres
The ICJ ruled that Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence from Serbia in 2008 did not violate international law.
Under Sukarno, Indonesia became the first and only country to leave the United Nations.
A Nepalese soldier on a peacekeeping deployment providing security at a rice distribution site in Haiti during 2010
The UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus was established in 1974 following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
Eleanor Roosevelt with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1949
Three former directors of the Global Smallpox Eradication Programme reading the news that smallpox has been globally eradicated in 1980
In Jordan, UNHCR remains responsible for the Syrian refugees and the Zaatari refugee camp.
The 2001 Nobel Peace Prize to the UN—diploma in the lobby of the UN Headquarters in New York City
Marking of the UN's 70th anniversary – Budapest, 2015

At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; with the addition of South Sudan in 2011, membership is now 193, representing almost all of the world's sovereign states.

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International relations

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The field of international relations dates from the time of the Greek historian Thucydides.
The official portraits of King Władysław IV dressed according to French, Spanish and Polish fashion reflects the complex politics of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Thirty Years' War.
Empires of the world in 1910
NATO International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan
The United Nations Secretariat Building at the United Nations headquarters in New York City
The World Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C.
NATO E-3A flying with USAF F-16s in a NATO exercise

International relations (IR), international studies (IS) or international affairs (IA) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states.

Women in Somaliland wearing the colors of the Somaliland flag

List of states with limited recognition

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Women in Somaliland wearing the colors of the Somaliland flag
UN member states that at least one other UN member state does not recognise
Non-UN member states recognised by at least one UN member state
Non-UN member states recognised only by other non-UN member states
Non-UN member states not recognised by any other state

A number of polities have declared independence and sought diplomatic recognition from the international community as de jure sovereign states, but have not been universally recognised as such.

State of Palestine

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Demonstration against road block, Kafr Qaddum, March 2012
The destroyed Palestinian Legislative Council building in Gaza City, Gaza–Israel conflict, September 2009
Map of Israeli settlements in the West Bank
International recognition of the State of Palestine
Children waving a Palestinian flag, West Bank
Palestinian girls in Nablus
Illustration of Palestinian Christian home in Jerusalem, ca 1850. By W. H. Bartlett

Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a de jure sovereign state in Western Asia.

Centralized government

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One in which both executive and legislative power is concentrated centrally at the higher level as opposed to it being more distributed at various lower level governments.

One in which both executive and legislative power is concentrated centrally at the higher level as opposed to it being more distributed at various lower level governments.

In a national context, centralization occurs in the transfer of power to a typically unitary sovereign nation state.

Portrait of "The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster", one of the treaties leading to the Peace of Westphalia, where the concept of the "nation state" was born.

Nation state

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Political unit where the state and nation are congruent.

Political unit where the state and nation are congruent.

Portrait of "The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster", one of the treaties leading to the Peace of Westphalia, where the concept of the "nation state" was born.
The Revolutions of 1848 were democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states.
Dissolution of the multiethnic Austro-Hungarian Empire (1918)
Ethnolinguistic map of mainland China and Taiwan
School map of Spain from 1850. It can be seen the State divided into four parts:- The "fully constitutional Spain", that includes Castilia, but also Galician-speacking territories. - The "assimilated Spain": territories from the Crown of Aragon,larguely Catalan-speaking territory- the "Foral Spain", which includes Basque-speaking territories- the "Colonial Spain", with last colonial territories.
The Greater German Reich under Nazi Germany in 1943

Walker Connor discusses the impressions surrounding the characters of "nation", "(sovereign) state", "nation state", and "nationalism".

Indigenous march right to self-determination (2008). Lumads from all over Mindanao march through the streets of Davao City at the end of a three-day conference.

Self-determination

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Cardinal principle in modern international law , binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.

Cardinal principle in modern international law , binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.

Indigenous march right to self-determination (2008). Lumads from all over Mindanao march through the streets of Davao City at the end of a three-day conference.
Map of Ottoman Empire in 1683
Map of territorial changes in Europe after World War I (as of 1923)
Map of the world in 1945, showing United Nations Trusteeship Council territories in green
Western European colonial empires in Asia and Africa disintegrated after World War II
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War
Southern Sudanese expressed joy and jubilation on their day of independence, July 9, 2011, from Sudan.
Celebration of the Declaration of Independence of Kosovo in 2008
Donetsk status referendum organized by separatists in Ukraine. A line to enter a polling place, 11 May 2014
During the 2019-20 Hong Kong protests, calls rose for self-determination by Hongkongers.
The first major demonstration in Stepanakert on February 13, 1988. Traditionally considered the start of the Artsakh movement.
Tuareg rebels in the short-lived proto-state of Azawad in 2012
2014 human chain for Basque Country's right to decide
A girl during the Nigerian Civil War of the late 1960s. Pictures of the famine caused by Nigerian blockade garnered sympathy for the Biafrans worldwide.
Protest in Barcelona on 1 October 2018
Pro-Russian separatists in Donetsk, April 2015
Malvinas and South Atlantic Islands Museum in Buenos Aires, 2015
Gibraltar National Day, September 2013
Pro-independence Hong Kong flag put up before a football match between the Hong Kong Football Team and the China national football team
Indian soldiers on the streets of Kashmir during the 2016 unrests
Kurdish YPG's female fighters during the Syrian War
Pro-independence rally in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan in September 2017
Atatürk Square, North Nicosia in 2006, with the Northern Cyprus and Turkish flags.
A republican mural in Belfast showing support for Palestine
A Native American woman in traditional dress
Native Americans and their supporters protest during the Washington Redskins name controversy.
A demonstration in Madrid for the independence of Western Sahara, 2007

Most sovereign states do not recognize the right to self-determination through secession in their constitutions.

Peremptory norm

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A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens or ius cogens ; Latin for "compelling law") is a fundamental principle of international law that is accepted by the international community of states as a norm from which no derogation is permitted.

Singapore

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Letter from William Farquhar to Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam, the 21st Sultan of Brunei, dated 28 November 1819. In the first line, Farquhar mentions that Sultan Hussein Shah and Temenggong Abdul Rahman allowed the British East India Company to establish a factory in Singapore on 6 February 1819.
1825 survey map. Singapore's free port trade was at Singapore River for 150 years. Fort Canning hill (centre) was home to its ancient and early colonial rulers.
British evacuation in 1945 after the Japanese surrender. Kallang Airport's control tower near the city has been conserved.
Singapore thrived as an entrepôt. In the 1960s, bumboats were used to transport cargoes and supplies between nearshore ships and Singapore River.
Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore
The Istana is the official residence and office of the President, as well as the working office of the Prime Minister.
The Supreme Court (left) and the Parliament House (right) where the Singapore Parliament convenes.
Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong at the 2017 G20 meeting in Germany. Since 2010, Singapore has often been invited to participate in G20 processes.
In 2007, Singaporean troopers were deployed in Afghanistan as part of a multinational coalition.
Republic of Singapore Air Force Black Knights perform at the Singapore Air Show.
Speakers' Corner in Chinatown provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area usually restricted in other parts of the island.
An outline of Singapore and the surrounding islands and waterways
Singapore Botanic Gardens is a UNESCO World Heritage Site – one of three gardens in the world, and the only tropical garden, to be recognised as such.
Singapore Airlines, the country's flag carrier, celebrated the nation's 2015 Golden Jubilee with a flag livery on its Airbus A380.
A proportional representation of Singapore exports, 2019
The Merlion, the official mascot of Singapore
The world's first urban congestion-pricing scheme started in the city centre in 1975 and was fully automated by Electronic Road Pricing in 1998.
Chinese (East Asian), Malay (Southeast Asian), and Indian (South Asian) women in Singapore, circa 1890. To promote racial harmony among the three races, a unique Racial Harmony Day is celebrated on 21 July every year.
Singapore Management University is one of six autonomous universities in the city-state
National University Hospital is the second largest hospital in the city, serving one million patients yearly.
Ornate details on top of Sri Mariamman Temple in Chinatown district, Singapore's oldest Hindu temple since 1827
The National Gallery Singapore oversees the world's largest public collection of Singapore and Southeast Asian art
Lau Pa Sat hawker centre in the financial district. Satay cart-stalls roll in after dusk, on a side street.
Joseph Schooling is a gold medalist and Olympic record holder at the Rio 2016 Games – 100 m butterfly.
The Ministry of Communications and Information oversees the development of Infocomm, Media and the arts.
Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore
The Speakers' Corner at Hong Lim Park provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area for Singaporeans often restricted in other parts of the country.

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia.