Sovereignty

sovereignsovereign entitysovereign nationindependencesovereign statessovereign territorysovereignsindependentnational sovereigntysovereign nations
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.wikipedia
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Realm

kingdomrealmskingdoms
One can also refer to a monarch who reigns over a sovereign realm as a sovereign.
A realm is a community or territory over which a sovereign rules.

Sovereign state

statestatessovereign states
A sovereign state, in international law, is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

Authority

authority figureauthoritiesauthoritative
In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity.
The claims of authority can extend to national or individual sovereignty, which is broadly or provisionally understood as a claim to political authority that is legitimated.

Jean Bodin

BodinJean Boudin[Jean] Bodin
Jean Bodin, partly in reaction to the chaos of the French wars of religion, presented theories of sovereignty calling for strong central authority in the form of absolute monarchy.
He is best known for his theory of sovereignty; he was also an influential writer on demonology.

Polity

politiespolitical entitypolitical entities
In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity.
A polity, like a state, does not need to be a sovereign unit.

State (polity)

statestatesthe state
In international law, the important concept of sovereignty refers to the exercise of power by a state.
Some states are sovereign, while other states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony, where supreme authority lies in another state.

Constitutional monarchy

constitutional monarchiesconstitutional monarchconstitutional
Rousseau considered sovereignty to be inalienable; he condemned the distinction between the origin and the exercise of sovereignty, a distinction upon which constitutional monarchy or representative democracy is founded.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

Leviathan (Hobbes book)

LeviathanLeviathan (book)Nasty, brutish, and short
Thomas Hobbes, in Leviathan (1651) put forward a conception of sovereignty similar to Bodin's, which had just achieved legal status in the "Peace of Westphalia", but for different reasons.
Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign.

Monarch

kingSovereignkings
One can also refer to a monarch who reigns over a sovereign realm as a sovereign.
Within the Holy Roman Empire, there were numerous titles used by noblemen whose authority within their territory sometimes approached sovereignty, even though they acknowledged the Holy Roman Emperor as suzerain; Elector, Grand Duke, Margrave, Landgrave and Count Palatine, as well as secular princes like kings, dukes, princes and "princely counts" (Gefürstete Grafen), and ecclesiastical princes like Prince-Archbishops, Prince-Bishops and Prince-Abbots.

International law

public international lawinternationallaw of nations
In international law, the important concept of sovereignty refers to the exercise of power by a state.
In theory all states are sovereign and equal.

Independence

independentindependent statepolitical independence
State sovereignty is sometimes viewed synonymously with independence, however, sovereignty can be transferred as a legal right whereas independence cannot.
Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
In particular, the "Social contract" as a mechanism for establishing sovereignty was suggested and, by 1800, widely accepted, especially in the new United States and France, though also in Great Britain to a lesser extent.
Including metropolitan France, the total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometers in the 1920s and 1930s, 8.6% of the world's land.

Jurisdiction

jurisdictionsjurisdictionallegal jurisdiction
A key element of sovereignty in a legalistic sense is that of exclusivity of jurisdiction.
When a country is recognized as de jure, it is an acknowledgment by the other de jure nations that the country has sovereignty and the right to exist.

Belarus

BLRRepublic of BelarusBelorussia
For other reasons however, Poland maintains its communist-era outline as opposed to its pre-World War II shape which included areas now in Belarus, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Slovakia and Ukraine but did not include some of its western regions that were then in Germany.
The parliament of the republic proclaimed the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990, and during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Belarus declared independence on 25 August 1991.

List of states with limited recognition

states with limited recognitionunrecognisedunrecognized
At the opposite end of the scale, there is no dispute regarding the self-governance of certain self-proclaimed states such as Republic of Abkhazia, Republic of South Ossetia or the Republic of Kosovo (see List of states with limited recognition) since their governments neither answer to a bigger state, nor is their governance subjected to supervision.
The international community can judge this military presence too intrusive, reducing the entity to a puppet state where effective sovereignty is retained by the foreign power.

Parliamentary sovereignty

parliamentary supremacylegislative supremacysovereignty of Parliament
This is the origin of the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty and is usually seen as the fundamental principle of the British constitution.
It holds that the legislative body has absolute sovereignty and is supreme over all other government institutions, including executive or judicial bodies.

Stephen D. Krasner

Stephen KrasnerKrasner
He has also written extensively about statehood and sovereignty.

Social contract

social contract theorycontractarianismcontractarian
In particular, the "Social contract" as a mechanism for establishing sovereignty was suggested and, by 1800, widely accepted, especially in the new United States and France, though also in Great Britain to a lesser extent.
All of these groups were led to articulate notions of popular sovereignty by means of a social covenant or contract, and all of these arguments began with proto-"state of nature" arguments, to the effect that the basis of politics is that everyone is by nature free of subjection to any government.

Vatican City

VaticanVatican City Statethe Vatican
The Holy See was in this position between the annexation in 1870 of the Papal States by Italy and the signing of the Lateran Treaties in 1929, a 59-year period during which it was recognised as sovereign by many (mostly Roman Catholic) states despite possessing no territory – a situation resolved when the Lateran Treaties granted the Holy See sovereignty over the Vatican City.
Established with the Lateran Treaty (1929), it is distinct from, yet under "full ownership, exclusive dominion, and sovereign authority and jurisdiction" of the Holy See (Sancta Sedes).

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

RousseauJean Jacques RousseauJ.-J. Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau's (1712–1778) definition of popular sovereignty (with early antecedents in Francisco Suárez's theory of the origin of power), provides that the people are the legitimate sovereign.
Although Rousseau argues that sovereignty (or the power to make the laws) should be in the hands of the people, he also makes a sharp distinction between the sovereign and the government.

Princes of the Holy Roman Empire

Prince of the Holy Roman EmpireImperial Princeprinces
In 1607 its Grand masters were also made Reichsfürst (princes of the Holy Roman Empire) by the Holy Roman Emperor, granting them seats in the Reichstag, at the time the closest permanent equivalent to a UN-type general assembly; confirmed 1620).
Thus, there were two main types of princes: those who exercised Landeshoheit (sovereignty within one's territory) as well as an individual or shared vote in the College of Princes, and those whose title was honorary (the possessor lacking an immediate Imperial fief and/or a vote in the Imperial Diet).

Head of state

heads of stateChief of Stateheads of states
Just as the office of head of state can be vested jointly in several persons within a state, the sovereign jurisdiction over a single political territory can be shared jointly by two or more consenting powers, notably in the form of a condominium.
In terms of protocol: the head of a sovereign, independent state is usually identified as the person who, according to that state's constitution, is the reigning monarch, in the case of a monarchy; or the president, in the case of a republic.

Lithuania

LTURepublic of LithuaniaLithuanian
For other reasons however, Poland maintains its communist-era outline as opposed to its pre-World War II shape which included areas now in Belarus, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Slovakia and Ukraine but did not include some of its western regions that were then in Germany. The pre-World War II administrations of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia maintained an exile existence (and considerable international recognition) whilst their territories were annexed by the Soviet Union and governed locally by their pro-Soviet functionaries.
The Lithuanian National Defence Policy aims to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land, territorial waters and airspace, and its constitutional order.

Holy See

VaticanRomethe Vatican
The Holy See was in this position between the annexation in 1870 of the Papal States by Italy and the signing of the Lateran Treaties in 1929, a 59-year period during which it was recognised as sovereign by many (mostly Roman Catholic) states despite possessing no territory – a situation resolved when the Lateran Treaties granted the Holy See sovereignty over the Vatican City.
The Holy See was granted territory in Duchy of Rome by the Donation of Sutri in 728 of King Liutprand of the Lombards, and sovereignty by the Donation of Pepin in 756 by King Pepin of the Franks.

Self-determination

self determinationright to self-determinationnational self-determination
A community of people who claim the right of self-determination based on a common ethnicity, history and culture might seek to establish sovereignty over a region, thus creating a nation-state.
It states that people, based on respect for the principle of equal rights and fair equality of opportunity, have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no interference.