Soviet Union

The Soviet Union after World War II
Lenin, Trotsky and Kamenev celebrating the second anniversary of the October Revolution
The Soviet Union after World War II
The Russian famine of 1921–22 killed an estimated 5 million people.
Construction of the bridge through the Kolyma (part of the Road of Bones from Magadan to Jakutsk) by the workers of Dalstroy.
Five Marshals of the Soviet Union in 1935. Only two of them – Budyonny and Voroshilov – survived Great Purge. Blyukher, Yegorov and Tukhachevsky were executed.
The Battle of Stalingrad, considered by many historians as a decisive turning point of World War II.
From left to right, the Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill confer in Tehran, 1943.
Map showing greatest territorial extent of the Soviet Union and the states that it dominated politically, economically and militarily in 1960, after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 but before the official Sino-Soviet split of 1961 (total area: c. 35,000,000 km2)
Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev (left) with US President John F. Kennedy in Vienna, 3 June 1961.
Nikolai Podgorny visiting Tampere, Finland on 16 October 1969
Soviet general secretary Leonid Brezhnev and US President Jimmy Carter sign the SALT II arms limitation treaty in Vienna on 18 June 1979
Mikhail Gorbachev in one-to-one discussions with US President Ronald Reagan
The Pan-European Picnic took place in August 1989 on the Hungarian-Austrian border.
T-80 tank on Red Square during the August Coup
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War
Internally displaced Azerbaijanis from Nagorno-Karabakh, 1993
Country emblems of the Soviet Republics before and after the dissolution of the Soviet Union (note that the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (fifth in the second row) no longer exists as a political entity of any kind and the emblem is unofficial)
Sukarno and Voroshilov in a state meeting on 1958.
1960s Cuba-Soviet friendship poster with Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet stamp 1974 for friendship between USSR and India as both nations shared strong ties, although India was a prominent member of Non-Aligned Movement
Gerald Ford, Andrei Gromyko, Leonid Brezhnev and Henry Kissinger speaking informally at the Vladivostok Summit in 1974
Mikhail Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush signing bilateral documents during Gorbachev's official visit to the United States in 1990
1987 Soviet stamp
Military parade on the Red Square in Moscow, 7 November 1964
The Grand Kremlin Palace, the seat of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, 1982
Nationalist anti-government riots in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 1990
A medium-range SS-20 non-ICBM ballistic missile, the deployment of which in the late 1970s launched a new arms race in Europe in which NATO deployed Pershing II missiles in West Germany, among other things
From left to right: Yuri Gagarin, Pavel Popovich, Valentina Tereshkova and Nikita Khrushchev at the Lenin's Mausoleum in 1963
Soyuz rocket at the Baikonur Cosmodrome
The DneproGES, one of many hydroelectric power stations in the Soviet Union
Picking cotton in Armenia in the 1930s
Workers of the Salihorsk potash plant, Belarus, 1968
Volzhsky Avtomobilny Zavod (VAZ) in 1969
Soviet stamp depicting the 30th anniversary of the International Atomic Energy Agency, published in 1987, a year following the Chernobyl nuclear disaster
Soviet stamp showing the orbit of Sputnik 1
Aeroflot's flag during the Soviet era
Population of the Soviet Union (red) and the post-Soviet states (blue) from 1961 to 2009 as well as projection (dotted blue) from 2010 to 2100
Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space, visiting the Lviv confectionery, Ukrainian SSR, 1967
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
People in Samarkand, Uzbek SSR, 1981
Svaneti man in Mestia, Georgian SSR, 1929
An early Soviet-era poster discouraging unsafe abortion practices
Cover of Bezbozhnik in 1929, magazine of the Society of the Godless. The first five-year plan of the Soviet Union is shown crushing the gods of the Abrahamic religions.
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow during its demolition in 1931
A paranja burning ceremony in the Uzbek SSR as part of Soviet Hujum policies
World War II military deaths in Europe by theater and by year. Nazi Germany suffered 80% of its military deaths in the Eastern Front.
2001 stamp of Moldova shows Yuri Gagarin, the first human in space
People in Donetsk celebrate the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany, 9 May 2018
Soviet singer-songwriter, poet and actor Vladimir Vysotsky in 1979
Valeri Kharlamov represented the Soviet Union at 11 Ice Hockey World Championships, winning eight gold medals, two silvers and one bronze
One of the many impacts of the approach to the environment in the USSR is the Aral Sea (see status in 1989 and 2014)
Landscape near Karabash, Chelyabinsk Oblast, an area that was previously covered with forests until acid rainfall from a nearby copper smelter killed all vegetation
Ethnographic map of the Soviet Union, 1941
Ethnographic map of the Soviet Union, 1970

Country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991.

- Soviet Union

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Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

Location of Kazakhstan (red) within the Soviet Union
Demographics of Kazakhstan from 1897 to 1970, with major ethnic groups. Famines of the 1920s and 1930s are marked with shades.
Location of Kazakhstan (red) within the Soviet Union

The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic was one of the transcontinental constituent republics of the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1936 to 1991 in northern Central Asia.


Largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of about 2 million.

Zenkov Cathedral, a 19th-century Russian Orthodox cathedral located in Panfilov Park, is the fourth tallest wooden building in the world.
The former Presidential Palace
World War II monument "Feat" in Park of the 28 Panfilov Guardsmen
The Almaty Opera Building
The International conference on Primary Health Care in 1978, known as the Alma-Ata Declaration
Trolleybus in Almaty city
Picture taken during a temperature inversion, showing smog trapped over Almaty
Al-Farabi Avenue
Map of Almaty (labeled as ALMA-ATA) and surrounding region from the International Map of the World (1948)
Almaty city districts
Abay Opera House
Kazakh Museum of Folk Musical Instruments
View of Almaty from Kök-Töbe
Panoramic night view of Almaty from Kok-Tobe, 2012
Ascention Cathedral in Almaty
Entrance to the First President's Park, 2010
Almaty Tower
Almaty International Airport is the largest airport in Kazakhstan.
Almaty Bike station
The final of the bandy tournament at the 2011 Asian Winter Games between Kazakhstan and Mongolia
2017 Winter Universiade
Fountain in Almaty
Zodiac Fountain
Nedelka Prospect
Fountains in Republic Square
Fountain in Abai Square
East Fountain
Panfilov Park
Kök Töbe cable car, 2007
Shymbulak Valley
Watchtower in middle of Big Almaty Lake
A modern Almaty street
The Central State Museum of Kazakhstan
Lake Sayran, on the western side of the city
Aerial view of Raymbek avenue
Raymbek batyr Station, Almaty Metro
The Ascension Cathedral in winter
Bronze statues of The Beatles by sculptor Eduard Kazaryan
Old House, constructed in 1908, at Furmanov street
The Musrepov Academic Youth Theater
The Medeo ice skating stadium
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Almaty 1 train station
City border
Statue of Vladimir Lenin

It was the capital of Kazakhstan from 1929 to 1936 as a autonomous republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic as part of the Soviet Union, then from 1936 to 1991 as a union republic and finally from 1991 as an independent state to 1997 when the government relocated the capital to Akmola (renamed Astana in 1998, and Nur-Sultan in 2019).

October Revolution

The Winter Palace of Petrograd one day after the insurrection, 8 November
Red Guard unit of the Vulkan factory in Petrograd, October 1917
Bolshevik (1920) by Boris Kustodiev
The New York Times headline from 9 November 1917
A scene from the July Days. The army has just opened fire on street protesters.
Cruiser Aurora
Forward gun of Aurora that fired the signal shot
Petrograd Milrevcom proclamation about the deposing of the Russian Provisional Government
The elections to the Constituent Assembly took place in November 1917. The Bolsheviks won 24% of the vote.
The dissolution of the Constituent Assembly on 6 January 1918. The Tauride Palace is locked and guarded by Trotsky, Sverdlov, Zinoviev and Lashevich.
European theatre of the Russian Civil War in 1918
Anniversary of October Revolution in Riga, Soviet Union in 1988
The dissolution of the Constituent Assembly on 6 January 1918. The Tauride Palace is locked and guarded by Trotsky, Sverdlov, Zinoviev and Lashevich.
European theatre of the Russian Civil War in 1918
Anniversary of October Revolution in Riga, Soviet Union in 1988

The October Revolution, officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution under the Soviet Union, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin that was a key moment in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917–1923.

Vladimir Lenin

Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist.

Lenin in 1920
Lenin's childhood home in Simbirsk
An image of Lenin (left) at the age of three
Lenin was influenced by the works of Karl Marx.
Lenin (seated centre) with other members of the League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class in 1897
Lenin in 1916, while in Switzerland
Lenin undertook research at the British Museum in London.
Lenin's travel route from Zurich to St. Petersburg, named Petrograd at the time, in April 1917, including the ride in a sealed train on German territory
The engine that pulled the train on which Lenin arrived at Petrograd's Finland Station in April 1917 was not preserved. So Engine #293, by which Lenin escaped to Finland and then returned to Russia later in the year, serves as the permanent exhibit, installed at a platform on the station.
Painting of Lenin in front of the Smolny Institute by Isaak Brodsky
The Moscow Kremlin, which Lenin moved into in 1918
Bolshevik political cartoon poster from 1920, showing Lenin sweeping away monarchs, clergy, and capitalists; the caption reads, "Comrade Lenin Cleanses the Earth of Filth"
Signing of the armistice between Russia and Germany on 15 December 1917
Lenin with his wife and sister in a car after watching a Red Army parade at Khodynka Field in Moscow, May Day 1918
A White Russian anti-Bolshevik propaganda poster, in which Lenin is depicted in a red robe, aiding other Bolsheviks in sacrificing Russia to a statue of Marx (c. undefined 1918–1919)
Photograph of Lenin on 1 May 1919, taken by Grigori Petrovich Goldstein
Victims of the famine in Buzuluk, Volga region, next to Saratov
Lenin in 1923, in a wheelchair
Lenin spent his final years largely at the Gorki mansion.
Lenin's funeral, painted by Isaac Brodsky, 1925
Lenin speaking in 1919
The 1985 post stamp for 115th birth anniversary of Lenin. Portrait of Lenin (based on a 1900 photography of Y. Mebius in Moscow) with the Tampere Lenin Museum.
Statue of Lenin erected by the East German Marxist–Leninist government at Leninplatz in East Berlin, East Germany (removed in 1992)
Lenin's Mausoleum in front of the Kremlin, 2007
Commemorative one rouble coin minted in 1970 in honour of Lenin's centenary
Detail of Man, Controller of the Universe, fresco at Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City showing Vladimir Lenin

He served as the first and founding head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1924 and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924.


Capital and largest city of Russia.

Vladimir-Suzdal, a principality on the northeastern periphery of Kievan Rus', grew into the Grand Duchy of Moscow.
Spassky Cathedral (Moscow's oldest extant building), built c. 1357
The Spasskaya Tower, built in 1491
Saint Basil's Cathedral, built in 1561
View of 17th-century Moscow (1922 drawing by Apollinary Vasnetsov)
"Sigismundian" Plan of Moscow (1610), named after Sigismund III of Poland, is the last city plan compiled before the destruction of the city in 1612 by retreating Polish troops and subsequent changes to the street network. Orientation: north is at the right, west at the top
Moskva riverfront in the 19th century
Bookshops at the Novospassky Bridge in the 17th century, by Apollinary Vasnetsov
Napoleon retreating from the city during the Fire of Moscow, after the failed French Invasion of Russia
Cathedral Square during the coronation of Alexander I, 1802, by Fyodor Alekseyev
City plan of Moscow, 1917
Funeral procession at the funeral of Joseph Stalin, 1953
Soviet parade outside Hotel Moskva on the Manezhnaya Square, 1964
Victory Day celebration on Red Square, May 9, 1975
View of the Floating bridge in Zaryadye Park, with the Red Square and the Moscow Kremlin in the distance
Tverskaya Street, the main radial street in the city
Satellite view of Moscow and its nearby suburbs
VDNKh after rain
Petrovsky Palace on Leningradsky Avenue in winter
Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow, a masterpiece of Russian architecture
The State Historical Museum, an example of the Neo-Russian style
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, an example of Neo-Byzantine architecture
GUM department store, facing the Red Square
Ostankino Tower, the tallest freestanding structure in Europe, and the eighth-tallest in the world
One of the Seven Sisters, Hotel Ukraina, is the tallest hotel in Europe, and one of the tallest hotels in the world
Zhivopisny Bridge, the highest cable-stayed bridge in Europe
Modern methods of skyscraper construction were implemented in the city for the first time with the ambitious MIBC.
Borovitskaya square, Monument to Vladimir the Great and Pashkov House
Gorky Park
Dream Island, the largest indoor theme park in Europe
Novodevichy Convent is a World Heritage Site.
The Church of Ascension in Kolomenskoye is a World Heritage Site.
Tretyakov Gallery
The Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts
The Luzhniki Stadium hosted the 1980 Summer Olympics and the 2018 FIFA World Cup Final.
SC Olimpiyskiy was built for the 1980 Summer Olympics.
CSKA Arena during a game of KHL, considered to be the second-best ice hockey league in the world
The Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow, which hosted games of the 2018 FIFA World Cup
Arbat Street, in the historical centre of Moscow
Government of Moscow
The House of the Government of the Russian Federation
A BMW 5 Series of the Moscow Police on patrol
Territorial change of Moscow from 1922 to 1995
Moscow International Business Center, one of the largest financial centres of Europe and the world
Moscow Exchange
Tretyakovsky Proyezd
Nikolskaya Street
Moscow State University
Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University
The main building of the Bauman Moscow State Technical University
The Moscow Conservatory building
The Russian State Institute of Cinematography, the world's oldest
film school
Russian Academy of Sciences
Moscow Metro route map with planned stations
Mayakovskaya station opened in 1938.
Two trains of the Moscow Monorail
Moscow has the largest fleet of electric buses in Europe, with 500 operating.
Cable cars passing across the Moskva River and the Luzhniki Stadium
A Vityaz-M tram passing by the Tverskaya Zastava Square
Tram map of Moscow
Komsomolskaya Square known as Three Station Square thanks to three ornate rail terminal situated there: Leningradsky, Yaroslavsky, and Kazansky
The high-speed Sapsan train links Moscow with Saint Petersburg.
"Lastochka" train on "Luzhniki" station (Line 14)
An EG2Tv train arriving at the Moscow Belorussky railway station
Map of the Moscow Central Diameters
Intersection at Tverskaya Zastava Square
Sheremetyevo, the busiest airport in Russia, is ranked as the fifth-busiest airport in Europe.
, Moscow has the largest fleet of carsharing vehicles in the world, with more than 30,000 cars.
The 2020 development concept of Moscow International Business Center and its adjacent territory implies the construction of even more skyscrapers during the period of 2020–2027.
The RTRN building
Otkrytiye Arena, home of FC Spartak Moscow
VEB Arena, home of PFC CSKA Moscow
VTB Arena, home of FC Dynamo Moscow and HC Dynamo Moscow
RZD Arena, home of FC Lokomotiv Moscow
Alexander Pushkin, the founder of modern Russian literature was born in Moscow in 1799.
Fyodor Dostoyevsky was born in Moscow in 1821.
Alexander Suvorov was born in Moscow in 1730.
Peter the Great was born in Moscow in 1672.

The capital was then moved back to Moscow following the October Revolution and the city was brought back as the political center of the Russian SFSR and then the Soviet Union.


'Tashkend' redirects here.

Coinage of Chach circa 625-725 CE
Ambassadors from Chaganian (central figure, inscription of the neck), and Chach (modern Tashkent) to king Varkhuman of Samarkand. 648-651 CE, Afrasiyab murals, Samarkand.
Arab Caliphate under Abbasid dynasty c 850. (Tashkent was ruled by Umayyad and Abbasids)
Silver Dirham of Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid minted in Tashkent (Tachkent, Mad'an al-Shash) in 190 AH (805/806 CE)
Zangi ata shrine
Barak khan madrasa, Shaybanids, 16th century
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was built by the Russian Orthodox Church in Tashkent.
Coats of arms of Tashkent, 1909
Tashkent c. 1910
Tashkent, 1917
The Courage Monument in Tashkent on a 1979 Soviet stamp
Alisher Navoiy Park
Japanese Gardens in Tashkent
Tashkent and vicinity, satellite image Landsat 5, 2010-06-30
Bread vendor in a market street of Tashkent
Panorama of Tashkent pictured 2010
Amir Timur Street pictured 2006
Residential Towers
A downtown street pictured 2012
Kukeldash Madrasa inner yard
Prince Romanov Palace
Alisher Navoi Opera and Ballet Theatre
Museum of Applied Arts
A statue commemorating Taras Shevchenko
Inside a Tashkent Metro station
Maksim Shatskikh, a striker for the Uzbekistan national football team, is from Tashkent.
c. 1865
1966: earthquake and subsequent redevelopment

In Soviet times, it witnessed major growth and demographic changes due to forced deportations from throughout the Soviet Union.


Largest city and administrative centre of Novosibirsk Oblast and Siberian Federal District in Russia.

The administrative building of Novosibirsk Oblast
Bugrinsky Bridge on the Ob River
Tolmachevo Airport
Novosibirsk-Glavny railway station
Trains at Novosibirsk-Glavny railway station
One of the city's new high-rises, photo from 2006
Bandy at Sibselmash Stadium
Spartak Stadium and city surroundings
Airphoto of Akademgorodok
Novosibirsk Zoo in 2015
Novosibirsk Children's railway
Marshal Pokryshkin metro station
BKM-60103 tram
71-623 (UKVZ) tram
Tatra KT4DM tram
Trolza-5265 low-floor trolleybus
MAZ-103 low-entry bus
Waterbus Moskva type on the Ob
Ford Transit marshrutka
Siberian State Transport University
Novosibirsk State Agricultural University
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Main Building
Siberian State University of Water Transport
Novosibirsk State Conservatory named after M.I. Glinka
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics
Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Technopark in Akademgorodok
Novosibirsk Opera and Ballet Theatre
Novosibirsk State Drama Theatre "Old House"
Novosibirsk Academic Youth Theatre "Globe"
Novosibirsk State Academic Drama Theatre "Red Torch"
Novosibirsk Musical Theatre
Philharmonic Chamber Hall of the Novosibirsk State Philharmonic Society

The city was ravaged by the Russian Civil War but recovered during the early Soviet period, and gained its present name in 1926.


Capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislach and the now subterranean Niamiha rivers.

Trajeckaje pradmiescie
Independence Square in the centre of Minsk.
The Saviour Church, built under the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1577, is part of an archaeological preservation in Zaslavl, 23 km northwest of Minsk.
Minsk in 1772
Church of Sts. Peter and Paul (Russian Orthodox).
Orthodox church of St. Mary Magdalene (built in 1847)
The Jesuit Collegium in 1912.
Belarusian national flag over the building of the People's Secretariat of the Belarusian People's Republic
Meeting in the Kurapaty woods, 1989, where between 1937 and 1941 from 30,000 to 250,000 Belarusian intelligentsia members were murdered by the NKVD during the Great Purge
Children during the German bombing of Minsk on 24 June 1941.
War memorial in Victory Square, Minsk.
German troops marching through Minsk.
Railway Station Square, an example of Stalinist Minsk architecture.
Janka Kupala National Theatre
Independence Avenue (Initial part of avenue candidates for inclusion in World Heritage Site).
Starascinskaja Slabada Squareon the Svislač River.
Panorama to the center of Minsk.
The Svislač River in autumn.
Apartment buildings in Minsk.
Jewish Holocaust memorial "The Pit" in Minsk.
Chinese signage, Minsk railway station (2018).
New synagogue in Minsk
Police during the 2020–21 Belarusian protests.
2020–21 Belarusian protests — Minsk, 30 August 2020.
Power plant.
House of Representatives of Belarus
Victory Square
The city hall (rebuilt in 2003).
Outside view of the Dinamo National Olympic Stadium, 2019.
Dinamo National Olympic Stadium (after reconstruction).
Minsk Arena
Electrobus AKSM E321 in Minsk.
Vakzalnaja station in the Minsk Metro.
Minsk Central Bus Station Nowadays
Stadler Astra train, Minsk train station.
Bike path in Minsk.
Church of St. Mary Magdalene (Russian Orthodox).
Church of Exaltation of the Holy Cross (Roman Catholic).
Church of Holy Trinity (Saint Rochus) (Roman Catholic).
Church of All Saints (Russian Orthodox).
Church of St.Yevfrosinya of Polotsk (Russian Orthodox).
Church of St. Elisabeth Convent (Russian Orthodox)
The Red Church (Roman Catholic).
Church of St.Joseph (formerly Uniate, used as an archive).
Cathedral of Saint Virgin Mary (Roman Catholic).
Minsk Cathedral of the Holy Spirit (Russian Orthodox).
Minsk State Linguistic University.
Faculty of International Relations, Belarusian State University.
Belarus State University rector's office.
Minsk satellite photo, 2019

From 1919 to 1991, after the Russian Revolution, Minsk was the capital of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, in the Soviet Union.

Red Army

Red Guards unit of the Vulkan factory
Hammer and plough cockade used by the Red Army from 1918 to 1922, when it was replaced by the hammer and sickle.
Leon Trotsky and Demyan Bedny in 1918
Vladimir Lenin, Kliment Voroshilov, Leon Trotsky and soldiers, Petrograd, 1921
Soviet tanks during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, August 1939
Red Army soldiers display a captured Finnish banner, March 1940
Soviet gun crew in action during the Siege of Odessa, July 1941
Salute to the Red Army at the Royal Albert Hall, London in February 1943
Ivan Konev at the liberation of Prague by the Red Army in May 1945
Marshals Zhukov and Rokossovsky with General Sokolovsky leave the Brandenburg Gate after being decorated by Field Marshal Montgomery
Red Army victory banner, raised above the German Reichstag in May 1945
Monument to the Red Army, Berlin
Roza Shanina was a graduate of the Central Women's Sniper Training School credited with 59 confirmed kills.
The Battle of Stalingrad is considered by many historians as a decisive turning point of World War II.
People in Saint Petersburg at «Immortal regiment», carrying portraits of their ancestors who fought in World War II.
Benjamin Netanyahu and Red Army's Jewish veterans, Victory Day in Jerusalem, 9 May 2017
Kursants (cadets) of the Red Army Artillery School in Chuhuyiv, Ukraine, 1933
Red Army Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky, who was executed during the Great Purge in June 1937. Here in 1920 wearing the budenovka
The unofficial Red Army flag, since the Soviet ground forces never had an official flag

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, often shortened to the Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Russian Civil War

Multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire sparked by the overthrowing of the monarchy and the new republican government's failure to maintain stability, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.

Clockwise from top left: 
Soldiers of the Don Army 

Soldiers of the Siberian Army

Suppression of the Kronstadt rebellion 

American troops in Vladivostok during the intervention

Victims of the Red Terror in Crimea

Hanging of workers in Yekaterinoslav by the Austrians

A review of Red Army troops in Moscow.
Admiral Alexander Kolchak (seated) and General Alfred Knox (behind Kolchak) observing military exercise, 1919
The Government of South Russia created by Pyotr Wrangel in Sevastopol, 1920
Anti-Bolshevik Volunteer Army in South Russia, January 1918
Russian soldiers of the anti-Bolshevik Siberian Army in 1919
European theatre of the Russian Civil War
Soviet delegation with Trotsky greeted by German officers at Brest-Litovsk, 8 January 1918
February 1918 article from The New York Times showing a map of the Russian Imperial territories claimed by the Ukrainian People's Republic at the time, before the annexation of the Austro-Hungarian lands of the West Ukrainian People's Republic
Czechoslovak legionaries of the 8th Regiment at Nikolsk-Ussuriysky killed by Bolsheviks, 1918. Above them stand also members of the Czechoslovak Legion.
Admiral Alexander Kolchak reviewing the troops, 1919
London Geographical Institute's 1919 map of Europe after the treaties of Brest-Litovsk and Batum and before the treaties of Tartu, Kars, and Riga
General Nikolai Yudenich
White propaganda poster "For united Russia" representing the Bolsheviks as a fallen communist dragon and the White Cause as a crusading knight
General Pyotr Wrangel in Tsaritsyn, 15 October 1919
Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge, a famous Bolshevik Constructivist propaganda poster by artist El Lissitsky uses abstract symbolism to depict the defeat of the Whites by the Red Army.
Victims of the Russian famine of 1921
Tambov Rebellion was one of the largest and best-organised peasant rebellions challenging the Bolshevik regime
Street children during the Russian Civil War
Refugees on flatcars

It resulted in the formation of the RSFSR and later the Soviet Union in most of its territory.