Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSovietsUnion of Soviet Socialist RepublicsSoviet RussiaURSRussianthe Soviet UnionRussiaSoviet era
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), commonly known as the Soviet Union, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 30 December 1922 to 26 December 1991.wikipedia
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Republics of the Soviet Union

Soviet republicsSoviet republicconstituent republics
Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized.
The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or Union Republics were the ethnically based proto-states of the Soviet Union.

Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Communist PartyCPSUSoviet Communist Party
The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR).
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Russian SFSRSoviet RussiaRSFSR
The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR). In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; ), previously known as the Russian Soviet Republic and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, as well as being unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia, or simply Russia, was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous and most economically developed of the 15 Soviet socialist republics of the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1922 to 1991, then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, during the last two years of the existence of the USSR.

One-party state

one-one-partyone-party system
The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR).
The Soviet government argued that multiple parties represented the class struggle, which was absent in Soviet society, and so the Soviet Union only had one party, namely the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Almaty

Alma-AtaAlma AtaAlmaty, Kazakhstan
Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk.
It served as capital of the Kazakh state in its various forms from 1929 to 1997, under the influence of the then Soviet Union and its appointees.

Economy of the Soviet Union

Soviet economyeconomySoviet planned economy
Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized.
Beginning in 1928, the course of the Soviet Union's economy was guided by a series of five-year plans.

Moscow

Moscow, RussiaMoskvaMuscovite
The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR).
The city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.

Polish People's Republic

Polandcommunist PolandRepublic of Poland
Counter-clockwise from northwest to southeast, the Soviet Union shared land borders with Norway, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea.
With a population of approximately 37.9 million inhabitants near the end of its existence, it was the most populous state of the Eastern Bloc after the Soviet Union.

Kiev

KyivKiev, UkraineKijów
Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk.
During World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but quickly recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union.

Government of the Soviet Union

Soviet governmentCouncil of Ministersgovernment
Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized.
The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main part of the executive branch of government of the USSR.

Minsk

Minsk, BelarusStaykiMińsk
Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk.
From 1919 to 1991, after the Russian Revolution, Minsk was the capital of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, in the Soviet Union.

Hungarian People's Republic

HungaryCommunist HungaryCommunist regime
Counter-clockwise from northwest to southeast, the Soviet Union shared land borders with Norway, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea.
It was governed by the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, which was under the influence of the Soviet Union pursuant to the 1944 Moscow Conference during which Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin had agreed that after the war Hungary was to be allocated to the Soviet Union.

Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

CzechoslovakiaČSSRcommunist Czechoslovakia
Counter-clockwise from northwest to southeast, the Soviet Union shared land borders with Norway, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea.
Formally known as the Fourth Czechoslovak Republic, it has been regarded as a satellite state of the Soviet Union.

Mongolian People's Republic

MongoliaMongolianPeople's Republic
Counter-clockwise from northwest to southeast, the Soviet Union shared land borders with Norway, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea.
It was ruled by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party and maintained close links with the Soviet Union throughout its history.

Socialist Republic of Romania

communist regimeRomaniaRomanian communist regime
Counter-clockwise from northwest to southeast, the Soviet Union shared land borders with Norway, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea.
As World War II ended, Romania, a former Axis member, was occupied by the Soviet Union, the sole representative of the Allies.

Vladimir Lenin

LeninV. I. LeninV.I. Lenin
The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917, when the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I.
He served as head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1924 and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924.

Treaty on the Creation of the USSR

December 1922 Union Treatyofficially mergedAdmitted to USSR
In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918.
The Treaty on the Creation of the USSR officially created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), commonly known as the Soviet Union. It de jure legalised a union of several Soviet republics that had existed since 1919 and created a new centralised federal government (Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union and Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union (TsIK) were the legislative while Council of People's Commissars was the executive) where key functions were centralised in Moscow.

Eastern Europe

EasternEastern EuropeanEast European
Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union had spanned eleven time zones and incorporated a wide range of environments and landforms.
A similar definition names the formerly communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe.

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic

Byelorussian SSRByelorussiaBelarus
In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Беларуская Савецкая Сацыялістычная Рэспубліка; Белорусская Советская Социалистическая Республика), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Ukrainian SSRUkraineUkrainian
In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР ; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР ; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.

Joseph Stalin

StalinJosef StalinJosif Stalin
Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
He ruled the Soviet Union from the mid–1920s until his death in 1953.

Marxism–Leninism

Marxist-LeninistMarxist–LeninistMarxism-Leninism
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism was the official state ideology of the Soviet Union (USSR), the political parties of the Communist International, and of contemporary Stalinist political parties.

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

AfghanistanRepublic of AfghanistanDRA
Counter-clockwise from northwest to southeast, the Soviet Union shared land borders with Norway, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea.
The most prominent Parcham leaders were exiled to the Eastern Bloc and the Soviet Union.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
In August 1939, days before the start of World War II, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Germany, after which the two countries invaded Poland in September 1939.
World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China.

Five-year plans for the national economy of the Soviet Union

Five-Year Planfive-year plansFive Year Plan
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism (which he created) and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization.
The five-year plans for the development of the national economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) (, Pjatiletnije plany razvitiya narodnogo khozyaystva SSSR) consisted of a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union, beginning in the late 1920s.