Space-time adaptive processing

Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is a signal processing technique most commonly used in radar systems.wikipedia
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Radar

radar stationradarsradar system
Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is a signal processing technique most commonly used in radar systems.
Signal processing techniques include moving target indication, Pulse-Doppler signal processing, moving target detection processors, correlation with secondary surveillance radar targets, space-time adaptive processing, and track-before-detect.

Array processing

array signal processingarrays
Array processing
Space-time adaptive processing

Digital signal processing

DSPsignal processingdigital signal processing (DSP)
Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is a signal processing technique most commonly used in radar systems.

Algorithm

algorithmscomputer algorithmalgorithm design
It involves adaptive array processing algorithms to aid in target detection.

Clutter (radar)

clutterground clutterradar clutter
Radar signal processing benefits from STAP in areas where interference is a problem (i.e. ground clutter, jamming, etc.).

Radar jamming and deception

jammingradar jammingjammers
Radar signal processing benefits from STAP in areas where interference is a problem (i.e. ground clutter, jamming, etc.).

Digital filter

filterdigitaldigital filters
STAP involves a two-dimensional filtering technique using a phased-array antenna with multiple spatial channels.

Pulse-Doppler radar

Dopplerpulse-Dopplerpulse doppler
Coupling multiple spatial channels with pulse-Doppler waveforms lends to the name "space-time."

Statistics

statisticalstatistical analysisstatistician
Applying the statistics of the interference environment, an adaptive STAP weight vector is formed.

Coherence (physics)

coherentcoherenceincoherent
This weight vector is applied to the coherent samples received by the radar.

Technology Service Corporation

At the time of publication, both Brennan and Reed were at Technology Service Corporation (TSC).

Moving target indication

moving target indicatorground moving target indicationMTI
For ground-based radar, cluttered returns tend to be at DC, making them easily discriminated by Moving Target Indication (MTI).

Signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio

signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR)signal-to-interference-and-noisesignal-to-interference-plus-noise
Thus receiver noise and interference must be considered, and detection processors must attempt to maximize the signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR). The goal is to find the optimal space-time weights in NM-dimensional space, where N is the number of antenna elements (our spatial degrees of freedom) and M is the number of pulse-repetition interval (PRI) taps (our time degrees of freedom), to maximize the signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR).

Pulse repetition frequency

PRFpulse repetition frequenciesmedium pulse repetition frequency
The goal is to find the optimal space-time weights in NM-dimensional space, where N is the number of antenna elements (our spatial degrees of freedom) and M is the number of pulse-repetition interval (PRI) taps (our time degrees of freedom), to maximize the signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR).

2D Filters

2-Dtwo-dimensional filters
It can be thought of as a 2-D finite-impulse response (FIR) filter, with a standard 1-D FIR filter for each channel (steered spatial channels from an electronically steered array or individual elements), and the taps of these 1-D FIR filters corresponding to multiple returns (spaced at PRI time).

Finite impulse response

FIRFIR filterFinite Impulse Response (FIR)
It can be thought of as a 2-D finite-impulse response (FIR) filter, with a standard 1-D FIR filter for each channel (steered spatial channels from an electronically steered array or individual elements), and the taps of these 1-D FIR filters corresponding to multiple returns (spaced at PRI time).

Sample matrix inversion

Sample Matrix Inversion (SMI)
For adaptive direct methods, Sample Matrix Inversion (SMI) uses the estimated (sample) interference covariance matrix in place of the actual interference covariance matrix.

Principal component analysis

principal components analysisPCAprincipal components
The principal component method firsts applies principal component analysis to estimate the dominant eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and then applies a covariance taper and adds an estimated noise floor:

MIMO

multiple-input multiple-outputmultiple-input and multiple-outputmultiple-input multiple-output communications
For dispersive channels, multiple-input multiple-output communications can formulate STAP solutions.

Equalization (communications)

equalizationequalizerequalizers
Frequency-selective channel compensation can be used to extend traditional equalization techniques for SISO systems using STAP.

Single-input single-output system

SISOsingle-input single-outputsingle-input and single-output
Frequency-selective channel compensation can be used to extend traditional equalization techniques for SISO systems using STAP. STAP has been extended for MIMO radar to improve spatial resolution for clutter, using modified SIMO radar STAP techniques.

Mean squared error

mean square errormean-squared errorsquared error loss
to minimize the mean squared error (MSE).

MIMO radar

STAP has been extended for MIMO radar to improve spatial resolution for clutter, using modified SIMO radar STAP techniques.

Beamforming

beam formingbeamformerAntenna beamforming
Beamforming

Multistatic radar

multistaticmultistatic operation
Multistatic radar