# Space-time adaptive processing

Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is a signal processing technique most commonly used in radar systems.wikipedia

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### Radar

**radar stationradarsradar system**

Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is a signal processing technique most commonly used in radar systems.

Signal processing techniques include moving target indication, Pulse-Doppler signal processing, moving target detection processors, correlation with secondary surveillance radar targets, space-time adaptive processing, and track-before-detect.

### Array processing

**array signal processingarrays**

Array processing

Space-time adaptive processing

### Digital signal processing

**DSPsignal processingdigital signal processing (DSP)**

Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) is a signal processing technique most commonly used in radar systems.

### Algorithm

**algorithmscomputer algorithmalgorithm design**

It involves adaptive array processing algorithms to aid in target detection.

### Clutter (radar)

**clutterground clutterradar clutter**

Radar signal processing benefits from STAP in areas where interference is a problem (i.e. ground clutter, jamming, etc.).

### Radar jamming and deception

**jammingradar jammingjammers**

Radar signal processing benefits from STAP in areas where interference is a problem (i.e. ground clutter, jamming, etc.).

### Digital filter

**filterdigitaldigital filters**

STAP involves a two-dimensional filtering technique using a phased-array antenna with multiple spatial channels.

### Pulse-Doppler radar

**Dopplerpulse-Dopplerpulse doppler**

Coupling multiple spatial channels with pulse-Doppler waveforms lends to the name "space-time."

### Statistics

**statisticalstatistical analysisstatistician**

Applying the statistics of the interference environment, an adaptive STAP weight vector is formed.

### Coherence (physics)

**coherentcoherenceincoherent**

This weight vector is applied to the coherent samples received by the radar.

### Technology Service Corporation

At the time of publication, both Brennan and Reed were at Technology Service Corporation (TSC).

### Moving target indication

**moving target indicatorground moving target indicationMTI**

For ground-based radar, cluttered returns tend to be at DC, making them easily discriminated by Moving Target Indication (MTI).

### Signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio

**signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR)signal-to-interference-and-noisesignal-to-interference-plus-noise**

Thus receiver noise and interference must be considered, and detection processors must attempt to maximize the signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR). The goal is to find the optimal space-time weights in NM-dimensional space, where N is the number of antenna elements (our spatial degrees of freedom) and M is the number of pulse-repetition interval (PRI) taps (our time degrees of freedom), to maximize the signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR).

### Pulse repetition frequency

**PRFpulse repetition frequenciesmedium pulse repetition frequency**

The goal is to find the optimal space-time weights in NM-dimensional space, where N is the number of antenna elements (our spatial degrees of freedom) and M is the number of pulse-repetition interval (PRI) taps (our time degrees of freedom), to maximize the signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR).

### 2D Filters

**2-Dtwo-dimensional filters**

It can be thought of as a 2-D finite-impulse response (FIR) filter, with a standard 1-D FIR filter for each channel (steered spatial channels from an electronically steered array or individual elements), and the taps of these 1-D FIR filters corresponding to multiple returns (spaced at PRI time).

### Finite impulse response

**FIRFIR filterFinite Impulse Response (FIR)**

It can be thought of as a 2-D finite-impulse response (FIR) filter, with a standard 1-D FIR filter for each channel (steered spatial channels from an electronically steered array or individual elements), and the taps of these 1-D FIR filters corresponding to multiple returns (spaced at PRI time).

### Sample matrix inversion

**Sample Matrix Inversion (SMI)**

For adaptive direct methods, Sample Matrix Inversion (SMI) uses the estimated (sample) interference covariance matrix in place of the actual interference covariance matrix.

### Principal component analysis

**principal components analysisPCAprincipal components**

The principal component method firsts applies principal component analysis to estimate the dominant eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and then applies a covariance taper and adds an estimated noise floor:

### MIMO

**multiple-input multiple-outputmultiple-input and multiple-outputmultiple-input multiple-output communications**

For dispersive channels, multiple-input multiple-output communications can formulate STAP solutions.

### Equalization (communications)

**equalizationequalizerequalizers**

Frequency-selective channel compensation can be used to extend traditional equalization techniques for SISO systems using STAP.

### Single-input single-output system

**SISOsingle-input single-outputsingle-input and single-output**

Frequency-selective channel compensation can be used to extend traditional equalization techniques for SISO systems using STAP. STAP has been extended for MIMO radar to improve spatial resolution for clutter, using modified SIMO radar STAP techniques.

### Mean squared error

**mean square errormean-squared errorsquared error loss**

to minimize the mean squared error (MSE).

### MIMO radar

STAP has been extended for MIMO radar to improve spatial resolution for clutter, using modified SIMO radar STAP techniques.

### Beamforming

**beam formingbeamformerAntenna beamforming**

Beamforming

### Multistatic radar

**multistaticmultistatic operation**

Multistatic radar