Space Shuttle

Shuttlespace shuttlesSpace Shuttle ProgramNASA STS Space ShuttleSpace Shuttle OrbiterSpace Transportation SystemChallengerdescentfew places in the worldlanding systems research
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S.wikipedia
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Reusable launch system

reusablereusable launch vehiclereusable rockets
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program.
The first reusable vehicle to reach orbit was NASA's Space Shuttle.

Space Shuttle program

Space ShuttleShuttleShuttle Program
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program.
The Space Shuttle—composed of an orbiter launched with two reusable solid rocket boosters and a disposable external fuel tank—carried up to eight astronauts and up to 50000 lb of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO).

International Space Station

ISSInternational Space Station (ISS)Space Station
Operational missions launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes, and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST); conducted science experiments in orbit; and participated in construction and servicing of the International Space Station.
ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets, and American Space Shuttles.

Space Shuttle Columbia

ColumbiaSpace Shuttle ''ColumbiaColumbia Space Shuttle
Four fully operational orbiters were initially built: Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, and Atlantis.
Space Shuttle Columbia (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space-rated orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.

Spaceplane

space planesuborbital spaceplaneshuttle
The orbiter then glided as a spaceplane to a runway landing, usually to the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida or Rogers Dry Lake in Edwards Air Force Base, California. In 1958, the X-15 concept further developed into a proposal to launch an X-15 into space, and another X-series spaceplane proposal, named X-20 Dyna-Soar, as well as variety of aerospace plane concepts and studies.
Five kinds of spaceplanes have successfully flown to date, having reentered Earth's atmosphere, returned to Earth, and safely landed — the North American X-15, Space Shuttle, Buran, SpaceShipOne, and Boeing X-37.

Space Shuttle Enterprise

EnterpriseSpace Shuttle ''EnterpriseEnterprise'' (OV-101)
The first orbiter, Enterprise, was built in 1976, used in Approach and Landing Tests and had no orbital capability.
Space Shuttle Enterprise (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) was the first orbiter of the Space Shuttle system.

Space Shuttle Endeavour

EndeavourSpace Shuttle ''EndeavourShuttle ''Endeavour
A fifth operational (and sixth in total) orbiter, Endeavour, was built in 1991 to replace Challenger.
Space Shuttle Endeavour (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105) is a retired orbiter from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the fifth and final operational shuttle built.

Space Launch System

SLSSLS Block 1Space Launch System (SLS)
The U.S. has since relied on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft to transport astronauts to the International Space Station, pending the Commercial Crew Development and Space Launch System programs on schedule for first flights in 2019 and 2020.
SLS follows the cancellation of the Constellation program, and is to replace the retired Space Shuttle.

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)space program
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program. The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable human spaceflight vehicle capable of reaching low Earth orbit, commissioned and operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from 1981 to 2011.
Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle.

Hubble Space Telescope

HubbleHSTNASA/ESA HST
Operational missions launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes, and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST); conducted science experiments in orbit; and participated in construction and servicing of the International Space Station.
These plans emphasized the need for manned maintenance missions to the telescope to ensure such a costly program had a lengthy working life, and the concurrent development of plans for the reusable Space Shuttle indicated that the technology to allow this was soon to become available.

List of Space Shuttle crews

crew
At launch, it consisted of the "stack", including the dark orange external tank (ET) (for the first two launches the tank was painted white); two white, slender solid rocket boosters (SRBs); and the Orbiter Vehicle, which contained the crew and payload.
This is a list of persons who served aboard Space Shuttle crews, arranged in chronological order by Space Shuttle missions.

Human spaceflight

manned spaceflightmannedspace travel
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable human spaceflight vehicle capable of reaching low Earth orbit, commissioned and operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from 1981 to 2011.
In the United States, SpaceShipTwo reached the edge of space in 2018; this was the first crewed spaceflight from the USA since the Space Shuttle retired in 2011.

Edwards Air Force Base

Edwards AFBEdwardsMuroc Army Air Field
The orbiter then glided as a spaceplane to a runway landing, usually to the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida or Rogers Dry Lake in Edwards Air Force Base, California.
Notable occurrences at Edwards include Chuck Yeager's flight that broke the sound barrier in the Bell X-1, test flights of the North American X-15, the first landings of the Space Shuttle, and the 1986 around-the-world flight of the Rutan Voyager.

Commercial Crew Development

Commercial CrewCommercial Crew ProgramU.S. Commercial spaceflights
The U.S. has since relied on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft to transport astronauts to the International Space Station, pending the Commercial Crew Development and Space Launch System programs on schedule for first flights in 2019 and 2020.
Capable of remaining docked for 210 days— the Space Shuttle could only remain docked for a maximum of 12 days.

STS-47

SL-JSpacelab Mission Endeavour project
SL-J was partially funded by Japan.
STS-47 was the 50th Space Shuttle mission of the program, as well as the second mission of Space Shuttle Endeavour.

STS-55

D-2D2Mission D2
The United States funded Shuttle development and operations except for the Spacelab modules used on D1 and D2—sponsored by Germany.
STS-55 (Space Transportation System 55), or D-2 was the 55th overall flight of the US Space Shuttle and the 14th flight of Shuttle Columbia.

Space Shuttle main engine

main enginesmain engineRS-25
Shuttle components included the Orbiter Vehicle (OV) with three clustered Rocketdyne RS-25 main engines, a pair of recoverable solid rocket boosters (SRBs), and the expendable external tank (ET) containing liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.
The Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25, otherwise known as the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME), is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine that was used on NASA's Space Shuttle and is planned to be used on its successor, the Space Launch System.

NASA recovery ship

recovery shipSRB recovery ships
About two minutes after liftoff, frangible nuts were fired, releasing the SRBs, which then parachuted into the ocean, to be retrieved by NASA recovery ships for refurbishment and reuse.
The NASA recovery ships are two ships, the and the, that were tasked with retrieving spent Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) following the launch of Space Shuttle missions.

Inertial Upper Stage

IUS
Some payloads were launched into higher orbits with either of two different upper stages developed for the STS (single-stage Payload Assist Module or two-stage Inertial Upper Stage).
The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), originally designated the Interim Upper Stage, was a two-stage solid-fueled rocket upper stage developed by Boeing for the United States Air Force beginning in 1976 for raising payloads from low Earth orbit to higher orbits or interplanetary trajectories following launch aboard a Titan 34D or Titan IV rocket, or from the payload bay of the Space Shuttle.

Vehicle Assembly Building

VABVertical Assembly BuildingVehicle Assembly Building-High Bay and Low Bay
The Space Shuttle was stacked in the Vehicle Assembly Building, and the stack mounted on a mobile launch platform held down by four frangible nuts on each SRB, which were detonated at launch.
The Vehicle (originally Vertical) Assembly Building, or VAB, is the large building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC), designed to assemble the large pre-manufactured space vehicle components, such as the massive Saturn V and the Space Shuttle; and stack them vertically onto the Mobile Launch Platform and crawler transporter.

Space Shuttle design process

decision to build the Space Shuttlehad begun two decades earlierits official inception in 1969
Conceptualization had begun two decades earlier, before the Apollo program of the 1960s.
Before the Project Apollo Moon landing in 1969, NASA began studies of Space Shuttle designs as early as October 1968.

Spacecraft

spaceshipspaceshipsspace ship
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program.
The first partially reusable orbital spacecraft, a winged non-capsule, the Space Shuttle, was launched by the USA on the 20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight, on April 12, 1981.

Atmospheric entry

reentryatmospheric reentryre-entry
At the conclusion of the mission, the orbiter fired its OMS to de-orbit and re-enter the atmosphere.
This approach has been used by the American Space Shuttle and the Soviet Buran.

Spacelab

Space Lab 2Spacelab-2Neurolab
Across the Atlantic, European ministers met in Belgium in 1973 to authorize Western Europe's manned orbital project and its main contribution to Space Shuttle—the Spacelab program.
Spacelab was a reusable laboratory used on certain spaceflights flown by the Space Shuttle.

Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar

X-20 Dyna-SoarX-20Dyna-Soar
In 1958, the X-15 concept further developed into a proposal to launch an X-15 into space, and another X-series spaceplane proposal, named X-20 Dyna-Soar, as well as variety of aerospace plane concepts and studies.
Dyna-Soar was more like the much later Space Shuttle.