Space Shuttle

Shuttlespace shuttlesSpace Shuttle ProgramNASA STS Space ShuttleSpace Shuttle OrbiterSpace Transportation SystemChallengerdescentfew places in the worldlanding systems research
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system that was operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S.wikipedia
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Space Shuttle program

Space ShuttleShuttleShuttle program
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system that was operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program.
The Space Shuttle—composed of an orbiter launched with two reusable solid rocket boosters and a disposable external fuel tank—carried up to eight astronauts and up to 50000 lb of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO).

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNASA Advisory CouncilU.S. space program
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system that was operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program.
Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle.

Reusable launch system

reusablereusable launch vehiclefully reusable
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system that was operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program.
The first reusable launch vehicle to reach orbit was the Space Shuttle, which was not able to accomplish the intended goal of reducing launch costs to below those of expendable launch systems.

Space Shuttle Columbia

ColumbiaSpace Shuttle ''ColumbiaColumbia Space Shuttle
Four fully operational orbiters were initially built: Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, and Atlantis.
Space Shuttle Columbia (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space-rated orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.

Space Shuttle Enterprise

EnterpriseSpace Shuttle ''EnterpriseEnterprise'' (OV-101)
The first orbiter, Enterprise, was built in 1976, used in Approach and Landing Tests and has no orbital capability.
Space Shuttle Enterprise (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) was the first orbiter of the Space Shuttle system.

Spaceplane

space planesuborbital spaceplanespaceplanes
The orbiter then glided as a spaceplane to a runway landing, usually to the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida or Rogers Dry Lake in Edwards Air Force Base, California.
Three types of spaceplane have successfully launched to orbit, reentered Earth's atmosphere, and landed: the Space Shuttle, Buran, and the X-37.

Space Shuttle Endeavour

EndeavourSpace Shuttle ''EndeavourShuttle ''Endeavour
A fifth operational (and sixth in total) orbiter, Endeavour, was built in 1991 to replace Challenger.
Space Shuttle Endeavour (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105) is a retired orbiter from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the fifth and final operational Shuttle built.

Hubble Space Telescope

HubbleHSTHubble Telescope
Operational missions launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes, and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST); conducted science experiments in orbit; and participated in construction and servicing of the International Space Station.
These plans emphasized the need for manned maintenance missions to the telescope to ensure such a costly program had a lengthy working life, and the concurrent development of plans for the reusable Space Shuttle indicated that the technology to allow this was soon to become available.

Soyuz (spacecraft)

SoyuzSoyuz spacecraftSoyuz capsule
The U.S. has since relied on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft to transport astronauts to the International Space Station, pending the Commercial Crew Development and Space Launch System programs on schedule for first flights in 2019 and 2020.
Soyuz has served as the only means for crewed space flights in the world since the retirement of the US Space Shuttle in 2011 and is heavily used in the International Space Station program.

Martin Marietta X-24

X-24Martin Marietta X-24AMartin Marietta X-24B
Beginning in the early 1950s, NASA and the Air Force collaborated on developing lifting bodies to test aircraft that primarily generated lift from their fuselages instead of wings, and tested the M2-F1, M2-F2, M2-F3, HL-10, X-24A, and the X-24B.
It was designed and built to test lifting body concepts, experimenting with the concept of unpowered reentry and landing, later used by the Space Shuttle.

Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar

X-20 Dyna-SoarDyna-SoarX-20
In the late-1950s, the Air Force began developing the partially reusable X-20 Dyna-Soar.
Research into a spaceplane was realized much later in other reusable spacecraft such as the 1981–2011 Space Shuttle and the more recent Boeing X-40 and X-37B spacecraft.

Marshall Space Flight Center

George C. Marshall Space Flight CenterMSFCMarshall Spaceflight Center
After four additional flights, Enterprise was moved to the Marshall Space Flight Center on March 13, 1978.
Marshall has been the lead center for the Space Shuttle main propulsion and external tank; payloads and related crew training; International Space Station (ISS) design and assembly; computers, networks, and information management; and the Space Launch System (SLS).

Edwards Air Force Base

Edwards AFBMuroc Army Air FieldEdwards
The orbiter then glided as a spaceplane to a runway landing, usually to the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida or Rogers Dry Lake in Edwards Air Force Base, California.
Notable occurrences at Edwards include Chuck Yeager's flight that broke the sound barrier in the Bell X-1, test flights of the North American X-15, the first landings of the Space Shuttle, and the 1986 around-the-world flight of the Rutan Voyager.

Spacecraft

spaceshipspaceshipsspace ship
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system that was operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program.
The first partially reusable orbital spacecraft, a winged non-capsule, the Space Shuttle, was launched by the USA on the 20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight, on April 12, 1981.

List of Space Shuttle crews

Space Shuttle crewscrew
At launch, it consisted of the orbiter, which contained the crew and payload, the external tank (ET), and the two solid rocket boosters (SRBs).
This is a list of persons who served aboard Space Shuttle crews, arranged in chronological order by Space Shuttle missions.

STS-4

4fourth missionSpace Shuttle Columbia
On July 4, 1982, STS-4, flown by Ken Mattingly and Henry Hartsfield, landed at Edwards AFB. Columbia originally had modified SR-71 zero-zero ejection seats installed for the ALT and first four missions, but these were disabled after STS-4 and removed after STS-9.
STS-4 was the fourth NASA Space Shuttle mission, and also the fourth for Space Shuttle Columbia.

Maxime Faget

Max FagetMaxime A. Faget
Max Faget, a NASA engineer who had worked to design the Mercury capsule, patented a design for a two-stage fully recoverable system with a straight-winged orbiter mounted on a larger straight-winged booster.
Faget was the designer of the Mercury spacecraft, and contributed to the later Gemini and Apollo spacecraft as well as the Space Shuttle.

George Mueller (NASA)

George MuellerGeorge E. MuellerDr. George E. Mueller
The head of the NASA Office of Manned Space Flight, George Mueller, announced the plan for a reusable shuttle on August 10, 1968.
Mueller also played a key part in the design of Skylab, and championed the space shuttle's development, which earned him the nickname, "the father of the space shuttle."

Vandenberg AFB Space Launch Complex 6

SLC-6Space Launch Complex 6an existing launch site
Enterprise was taken back to California in August 1979, and later served in the development of the SLC-6 at Vandenberg AFB in 1984.
The complex was later rebuilt to serve as the west coast launch site for the Space Shuttle, but went unused due to budget, safety and political considerations.

Robert Crippen

Robert L. CrippenBob CrippenCrippen
On April 12, 1981, the Space Shuttle launched for the first time, and was piloted by John Young and Robert Crippen.
He traveled into space four times: as Pilot of STS-1 in April 1981, the first Space Shuttle mission; and as Commander of STS-7 in June 1983, STS-41-C in April 1984, and STS-41-G in October 1984.

John Young (astronaut)

John YoungJohn W. YoungYoung
On April 12, 1981, the Space Shuttle launched for the first time, and was piloted by John Young and Robert Crippen.
He is the only person to have piloted and commanded four different classes of spacecraft: Gemini, the Apollo Command and Service Module, the Apollo Lunar Module, and the Space Shuttle.

STS-5

fifth space shuttle missionmission
From the fifth flight, STS-5, until the loss of Challenger, the crew wore one-piece light blue nomex flight suits and partial-pressure helmets.
STS-5 was the fifth NASA Space Shuttle mission and the fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia.

STS-9

Spacelab 1Spacelab-19
Columbia originally had modified SR-71 zero-zero ejection seats installed for the ALT and first four missions, but these were disabled after STS-4 and removed after STS-9.
STS-9 (also referred to as STS-41-A and Spacelab 1) was the ninth NASA Space Shuttle mission and the sixth mission of the Space Shuttle Columbia.

STS-98

2001STS 98
MEDS was flown for the first time in May 2000 on STS-98, and the other orbiter vehicles were upgraded to it.
STS-98 was a 2001 Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by Space Shuttle Atlantis.

Ken Mattingly

Thomas K. MattinglyThomas MattinglyThomas K. Mattingly II
On July 4, 1982, STS-4, flown by Ken Mattingly and Henry Hartsfield, landed at Edwards AFB.
Mattingly and his commander from Apollo 16, John Young, are the only people to have flown to the Moon and also a Space Shuttle orbital mission (Fred Haise, his former training crewmate from Apollo 13, did atmospheric flight testing of the Space Shuttle "Approach and Landing Tests").