Space exploration

space missionexplorationspace missionsspace travelspaceexploration of spacemissionspace programmissionsspace flight
Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space.wikipedia
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Outer space

spaceinterstellar spaceintergalactic medium
Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space.
This treaty precludes any claims of national sovereignty and permits all states to freely explore outer space.

Rocket

rocketsrocketryrocket scientist
While the observation of objects in space, known as astronomy, predates reliable recorded history, it was the development of large and relatively efficient rockets during the mid-twentieth century that allowed physical space exploration to become a reality.
Rockets are now used for fireworks, weaponry, ejection seats, launch vehicles for artificial satellites, human spaceflight, and space exploration.

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNASA Advisory CouncilU.S. space program
The Obama Administration proposed a revision of Constellation in 2010 to focus on the development of the capability for crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), envisioning extending the operation of the ISS beyond 2020, transferring the development of launch vehicles for human crews from NASA to the private sector, and developing technology to enable missions to beyond LEO, such as Earth–Moon L1, the Moon, Earth–Sun L2, near-Earth asteroids, and Phobos or Mars orbit.
Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle.

Soviet space program

SovietSoviet space programmespace program
Gagarin's flight resonated around the world; it was a demonstration of the advanced Soviet space program and it opened an entirely new era in space exploration: human spaceflight.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.

Flyby (spaceflight)

flybyflybys
The first interplanetary flyby was the 1961 Venera 1 flyby of Venus, though the 1962 Mariner 2 was the first flyby of Venus to return data (closest approach 34,773 kilometers).
A flyby is a spaceflight operation in which a spacecraft passes in close proximity to another body, usually a target of its space exploration mission and/or a source of a gravity assist to impel it towards another target.

Pioneer 10

10PioneerPioneers 10
The other planets were first flown by in 1965 for Mars by Mariner 4, 1973 for Jupiter by Pioneer 10, 1974 for Mercury by Mariner 10, 1979 for Saturn by Pioneer 11, 1986 for Uranus by Voyager 2, 1989 for Neptune by Voyager 2.
This space exploration project was conducted by the NASA Ames Research Center in California, and the space probe was manufactured by TRW Inc.

Flight controller

CAPCOMcapsule communicatorflight director
Flight controllers work at computer consoles and use telemetry to monitor various technical aspects of a space mission in real time.

Human spaceflight

space travelmannedmanned spaceflight
Gagarin's flight resonated around the world; it was a demonstration of the advanced Soviet space program and it opened an entirely new era in space exploration: human spaceflight. While the study of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes, its physical exploration though is conducted both by unmanned robotic space probes and human spaceflight.
In October 2015, the NASA Office of Inspector General issued a health hazards report related to space exploration, including a human mission to Mars.

Hope Mars Mission

Mars HopeEmirates Mars MissionHope
Called the Emirates Mars Mission, it is scheduled for launch in 2020.
The Hope Mars Mission also called Emirates Mars Mission, is a space exploration probe mission to Mars funded by the United Arab Emirates and built by the Mohammed bin Rashid Space Centre, the University of Colorado and Arizona State University and set for launch in 2020.

Hermann Oberth

OberthOberth, HermannHerman Oberth
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Robert Goddard, Hermann Oberth, and Reinhold Tiling laid the groundwork of rocketry in the early years of the 20th century.
This film was of enormous value in popularizing the ideas of rocketry and space exploration.

Kosmos 186 and Kosmos 188

Cosmos 186Cosmos 188Kosmos 186
After Korolev's death in 1966, Kerimov became the lead scientist of the Soviet space program and was responsible for the launch of the first space stations from 1971 to 1991, including the Salyut and Mir series, and their precursors in 1967, the Cosmos 186 and Cosmos 188.
The two Soviet spacecraft made the first fully automated space docking in the history of space exploration on October 30, 1967.

Rover (space exploration)

roverroversspace rover
Dozens of robotic spacecraft, including orbiters, landers, and rovers, have been launched toward Mars since the 1960s.
They are essential tools in space exploration.

Moon landing

lunar landingland on the MoonMoon race
The launch of the first human-made object to orbit Earth, the Soviet Union's Sputnik 1, on 4 October 1957, and the first Moon landing by the American Apollo 11 mission on 20 July 1969 are often taken as landmarks for this initial period.
Progress in space exploration has recently broadened the phrase moon landing to include other moons in the Solar System as well.

Constellation program

Project ConstellationConstellationasteroid mission
Constellation, a Bush Administration program for a return to the Moon by 2020 was judged inadequately funded and unrealistic by an expert review panel reporting in 2009.

Mir

Mir space stationSpace Station MirMir'' space station
After Korolev's death in 1966, Kerimov became the lead scientist of the Soviet space program and was responsible for the launch of the first space stations from 1971 to 1991, including the Salyut and Mir series, and their precursors in 1967, the Cosmos 186 and Cosmos 188.
In June 1992, American president George H. W. Bush and Russian president Boris Yeltsin agreed to cooperate on space exploration.

Astronomy

astronomicalastronomerastronomers
Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space. While the observation of objects in space, known as astronomy, predates reliable recorded history, it was the development of large and relatively efficient rockets during the mid-twentieth century that allowed physical space exploration to become a reality.

Wernher von Braun

von BraunDr. Wernher von BraunDr. von Braun
Wernher von Braun was the lead rocket engineer for Nazi Germany's World War II V-2 rocket project.
Repeating the pattern he had established during his earlier career in Germany, von Braun – while directing military rocket development in the real world – continued to entertain his engineer-scientist's dream of a future in which rockets would be used for space exploration.

Space Race

Moon RaceSpace Explorationspace program
The early era of space exploration was driven by a "Space Race" between the Soviet Union and the United States.

Space Shuttle program

Space ShuttleShuttleShuttle program
After the first 20 years of exploration, focus shifted from one-off flights to renewable hardware, such as the Space Shuttle program, and from competition to cooperation as with the International Space Station (ISS).

Orbital mechanics

astrodynamicsastrodynamicistorbital dynamics
Once in space, the motion of a spacecraft—both when unpropelled and when under propulsion—is covered by the area of study called astrodynamics.
Orbital mechanics is a core discipline within space-mission design and control.

V-2 rocket

V-2V2V2 rocket
Wernher von Braun was the lead rocket engineer for Nazi Germany's World War II V-2 rocket project. Although V-2 Rocket MW 18014 crossed the Kármán line earlier, in 1944.
This led to an eclectic array of experiments that flew on V-2s and paved the way for American manned space exploration.

Mars 3

3 Mars 3 landerMars 3 lander
In 1971 the Mars 3 mission achieved the first soft landing on Mars returning data for almost 20 seconds.

In situ resource utilization

in-situ resource utilizationISRUin-situ
Space colonization, also called space settlement and space humanization, would be the permanent autonomous (self-sufficient) human habitation of locations outside Earth, especially of natural satellites or planets such as the Moon or Mars, using significant amounts of in-situ resource utilization.
In space exploration, in situ resource utilization (ISRU) is the practice of collection, processing, storing and use of materials found or manufactured on other astronomical objects (the Moon, Mars, asteroids, etc.) that replace materials that would otherwise be brought from Earth.

Mariner 4

Mariner IV Mariner 4
The other planets were first flown by in 1965 for Mars by Mariner 4, 1973 for Jupiter by Pioneer 10, 1974 for Mercury by Mariner 10, 1979 for Saturn by Pioneer 11, 1986 for Uranus by Voyager 2, 1989 for Neptune by Voyager 2.

Pluto

134340 Pluto(134340) Plutoescaped moon of Neptune
In 2015, the dwarf planets Ceres and Pluto were orbited by Dawn and passed by New Horizons, respectively.
Pluto's distance from Earth makes its in-depth study and exploration difficult.