Space probe

probespace probesprobesinterplanetary probeinterplanetary probesspacecraftdeep-space probesplanetary proberobotic proberobotic probes
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit Earth, but instead, explores further into outer space.wikipedia
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Robotic spacecraft

roboticunmanned space missionprobe
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit Earth, but instead, explores further into outer space.
A robotic spacecraft designed to make scientific research measurements is often called a space probe.

Planetary flyby

flybyflybysflew by
A space probe may approach the Moon; travel through interplanetary space; flyby, orbit, or land on other planetary bodies; or enter interstellar space.
A planetary flyby is the act of sending a space probe past a planet or a dwarf planet close enough to record scientific data.

Soviet space program

SovietSoviet space programmespace program
The space agencies of the USSR (now Russia and Ukraine), the United States, the European Union, Japan, China, India, and Israel have collectively launched probes to several planets and moons of the Solar System, as well as to a number of asteroids and comets.
Further notable records included the first interplanetary probes: Venera 1 and Mars 1 to fly by Venus and Mars, respectively, Venera 3 and Mars 2 to impact the respective planet surface, and Venera 7 and Mars 3 to make soft landings on these planets.

Indian Space Research Organisation

ISROIndian Space Research OrganizationIndian Space Program
The space agencies of the USSR (now Russia and Ukraine), the United States, the European Union, Japan, China, India, and Israel have collectively launched probes to several planets and moons of the Solar System, as well as to a number of asteroids and comets.
Future plans include development of the Unified Launch Vehicle, Small Satellite Launch Vehicle, development of a reusable launch vehicle, human spaceflight, a space station, interplanetary probes, and a solar spacecraft mission.

Planet

planetsFormer classification of planetsplanemo
The space agencies of the USSR (now Russia and Ukraine), the United States, the European Union, Japan, China, India, and Israel have collectively launched probes to several planets and moons of the Solar System, as well as to a number of asteroids and comets.
Since the dawn of the Space Age, close observation by space probes has found that Earth and the other planets share characteristics such as volcanism, hurricanes, tectonics, and even hydrology.

Comet

cometslong-period cometJupiter-family comet
The space agencies of the USSR (now Russia and Ukraine), the United States, the European Union, Japan, China, India, and Israel have collectively launched probes to several planets and moons of the Solar System, as well as to a number of asteroids and comets. The Rosetta space probe flew by two asteroids and made a rendezvous and orbited comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in November 2014.
The Giotto space probe found that the nucleus of Halley's Comet reflects about four percent of the light that falls on it, and Deep Space 1 discovered that Comet Borrelly's surface reflects less than 3.0%; by comparison, asphalt reflects seven percent.

Heliocentric orbit

Heliocentrictrans-Mars injectionsolar orbit
Once a probe has left the vicinity of Earth, its trajectory will likely take it along an orbit around the Sun similar to the Earth's orbit.
All planets, comets, and asteroids in the Solar System, and the Sun itself are in such orbits, as are many artificial probes and pieces of debris.

Rosetta (spacecraft)

RosettaRosetta missionRosetta spacecraft
The Rosetta space probe flew by two asteroids and made a rendezvous and orbited comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in November 2014.
Rosetta was a space probe built by the European Space Agency launched on 2 March 2004.

Voyager 1

Voyager IVoyagerMariner 11
Voyager 1 is a 733-kilogram probe launched September 5, 1977. Along with Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and its sister space probe Voyager 2, Voyager 1 is now an interstellar probe.
Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.

Huygens (spacecraft)

HuygensHuygens probeHuygens'' probe
The NASA probe was launched with ESA lander Huygens on October 1, 1997 from Cape Canaveral.
Huygens was an atmospheric entry probe that landed successfully on Saturn's moon Titan in 2005.

Pioneer 10

10PioneerPioneers 10
Along with Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and its sister space probe Voyager 2, Voyager 1 is now an interstellar probe.
Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, launched in 1972 and weighing 258 kg, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.

Pioneer 11

11PioneerPioneer Saturn
Along with Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and its sister space probe Voyager 2, Voyager 1 is now an interstellar probe.
Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a 259 kg robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind and cosmic rays.

Voyager 2

2Voyager IIMariner 12
Along with Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and its sister space probe Voyager 2, Voyager 1 is now an interstellar probe.
Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.

Interstellar probe

interstellarinterstellar mission
Along with Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and its sister space probe Voyager 2, Voyager 1 is now an interstellar probe.
An interstellar probe is a space probe that has left—or is expected to leave—the Solar System and enter interstellar space, which is typically defined as the region beyond the heliopause.

67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenkocomet 67PChuryumov–Gerasimenko
The Rosetta space probe flew by two asteroids and made a rendezvous and orbited comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in November 2014.
Philae is a 220 lb robotic probe that set down on the surface with landing gear.

Cassini–Huygens

CassiniCassini-HuygensCassini spacecraft
The Flagship-class robotic spacecraft comprised both NASA's Cassini probe and ESA's Huygens lander, which landed on Saturn's largest moon, Titan.

Mariner 10

10first imagesMariner-Venus-Mercury
Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on November 3, 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus.

Dawn (spacecraft)

DawnDawn spacecraftDawn mission
Dawn is a retired space probe launched by NASA in September 2007 with the mission of studying two of the three known protoplanets of the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres.

Saturn

Atmosphere of SaturnOrbit of SaturnPhainon
It visited Jupiter and Saturn and was the first probe to provide detailed images of the moons of these planets.
The third phase is visitation by space probes, by either orbiting or flyby.

Mars

MartianCoordinatesplanet Mars
First soft landing on Mars (December 2, 1971 ) The lander began transmitting to the Mars 3 orbiter 90 seconds after landing.
Pseudo-scientific speculations about the Face on Mars and other enigmatic landmarks spotted by space probes have meant that ancient civilizations continue to be a popular theme in science fiction, especially in film.

Titan (moon)

TitanSaturn's moon Titanatmosphere
The Cassini probe entered Saturn orbit on July 1, 2004, and Huygens landed on Titan, Saturn's largest moon, on January 14, 2005.
There have been several conceptual missions proposed in recent years for returning a robotic space probe to Titan.

Geocentric orbit

GeocentricEarth orbitEarth-orbit
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit Earth, but instead, explores further into outer space.

Earth

Earth's surfaceterrestrialworld
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit Earth, but instead, explores further into outer space.

Moon

lunarthe MoonLuna
A space probe may approach the Moon; travel through interplanetary space; flyby, orbit, or land on other planetary bodies; or enter interstellar space.

Orbit

orbitsorbital motionplanetary motion
A space probe may approach the Moon; travel through interplanetary space; flyby, orbit, or land on other planetary bodies; or enter interstellar space.