Space station

space stationsorbital stationstationorbital scientific research complexorbitalSpace Platformbattle stationHabitatmost-visited spacecraftorbital platform
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting a human crew in orbit for an extended period of time that lacks major propulsion or landing systems.wikipedia
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Spacecraft

spaceshipspaceshipsspace ship
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting a human crew in orbit for an extended period of time that lacks major propulsion or landing systems.
Spacecraft used for human spaceflight carry people on board as crew or passengers from start or on orbit (space stations) only, whereas those used for robotic space missions operate either autonomously or telerobotically.

International Space Station

ISSInternational Space Station (ISS)Space Station
, one fully operational and permanently inhabited space station is in low Earth orbit: the International Space Station (ISS), which is used to study the effects of long-term space flight on the human body as well as to provide a location to conduct a greater number and length of scientific studies than is possible on other space vehicles.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station (habitable artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit.

Axiom Space

China, India, Russia, and the U.S., as well as Bigelow Aerospace and Axiom Space, are all planning other stations for the coming decades.
Axiom Space is a private American space station manufacturer and services provider based in Houston, Texas that plans to construct and operate the world's first international commercial space station.

Human spaceflight

space travelmannedmanned spaceflight
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting a human crew in orbit for an extended period of time that lacks major propulsion or landing systems.
On losing the Moon race, they concentrated on the development of space stations, using the Soyuz as a ferry to take cosmonauts to and from the stations.

Rotating wheel space station

ring-shaped rotating space stationRotating wheel space stationsrotating wheel-shaped station
In 1951, Wernher von Braun published a concept for a rotating wheel space station in Collier's Weekly, referencing Potočnik's idea.
A rotating wheel space station, or von Braun wheel, is a hypothetical wheel-shaped space station that rotates about its axis, thus creating an environment of artificial gravity.

Salyut 1

SaljutSalyut'' 1space station Salyut 1
During the latter half of the 20th century, the Soviet Union developed and launched the world's first space station, Salyut 1. Starting with the ill-fated flight of the Soyuz 11 crew to Salyut 1, all recent human spaceflight duration records have been set aboard space stations.
Salyut 1 (DOS-1) (Салют-1) was the first space station of any kind, launched into low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971.

Salyut programme

SalyutSalyut programSalyut 1
The Almaz and Salyut series were eventually joined by Skylab, Mir, and Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2.
The Salyut programme (Салю́т, meaning "salute" or "fireworks") was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union.

Low Earth orbit

Low EarthLEOlow-Earth orbit
, one fully operational and permanently inhabited space station is in low Earth orbit: the International Space Station (ISS), which is used to study the effects of long-term space flight on the human body as well as to provide a location to conduct a greater number and length of scientific studies than is possible on other space vehicles.
All crewed space stations to date, as well as the majority of satellites, have been in LEO.

Skylab

Skylab 1Skylab 5Sky Lab
The Almaz and Salyut series were eventually joined by Skylab, Mir, and Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2.
Skylab was the first United States space station, launched by NASA, occupied for about 24 weeks between May 1973 and February 1974.

Mir

Mir space stationSpace Station MirMir'' space station
The Almaz and Salyut series were eventually joined by Skylab, Mir, and Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2.
Mir (Мир, ; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.

Almaz

Almaz 1Almaz-1military Salyut
The Almaz and Salyut series were eventually joined by Skylab, Mir, and Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2. The last military-use space station was the Soviet Salyut 5, which was launched under the Almaz program and orbited between 1976 and 1977. The military stations, Salyut 2, Salyut 3, and Salyut 5, were also known as Almaz stations.
The Almaz (Алмаз, "Diamond") program was a highly secret Soviet military space station program, begun in the early 1960s.

Tiangong-1

Tiangong 1space station
The Almaz and Salyut series were eventually joined by Skylab, Mir, and Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2.
Tiangong-1 was China's first prototype space station.

Soyuz 11

11Soyuz 11 re-entrySoyuz-11
Starting with the ill-fated flight of the Soyuz 11 crew to Salyut 1, all recent human spaceflight duration records have been set aboard space stations.
Soyuz 11 (Союз 11, Union 11) was the only manned mission to board the world's first space station, Salyut 1 (Soyuz 10 had soft-docked but had not been able to enter due to latching problems).

Space weapon

orbital bombardmentorbital weaponorbital weapons platform
Conceptualized during the Second World War, the "sun gun" was a theoretical orbital weapon orbiting Earth at a height of 8200 km.
The Soviet Almaz secret military space station program was equipped with a fixed 23mm autocannon to prevent hostile interception or boarding by hostile forces.

Salyut 5

5
The last military-use space station was the Soviet Salyut 5, which was launched under the Almaz program and orbited between 1976 and 1977. The military stations, Salyut 2, Salyut 3, and Salyut 5, were also known as Almaz stations.
Salyut 5 (Салют-5 meaning Salute 5), also known as OPS-3, was a Soviet space station.

Salyut 6

Salyut-66Salyut 6 EO-1
The civilian stations Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 were built with two docking ports, which allowed a second crew to visit, bringing a new spacecraft with them; the Soyuz ferry could spend 90 days in space, at which point it needed to be replaced by a fresh Soyuz spacecraft.
Salyut 6 (Салют-6; lit. Salute 6), DOS-5, was a Soviet orbital space station, the eighth flown as part of the Salyut programme.

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

TsiolkovskyKonstantin TsiolkovskiKonstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky
The first to give serious, scientifically grounded consideration to space stations were Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Hermann Oberth about two decades apart in the early 20th century.
Among his works are designs for rockets with steering thrusters, multistage boosters, space stations, airlocks for exiting a spaceship into the vacuum of space, and closed-cycle biological systems to provide food and oxygen for space colonies.

Tiangong-2

Tiangong 2
The Almaz and Salyut series were eventually joined by Skylab, Mir, and Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2.
Tiangong-2 was a Chinese space laboratory and part of the Project 921-2 space station program.

Salyut 7

Salyut-77Salyut 7 EO-3
The civilian stations Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 were built with two docking ports, which allowed a second crew to visit, bringing a new spacecraft with them; the Soyuz ferry could spend 90 days in space, at which point it needed to be replaced by a fresh Soyuz spacecraft.
Salyut 7 (Салют-7; Salute 7) (a.k.a. DOS-6 ) was a space station in low Earth orbit from April 1982 to February 1991.

Salyut 3

3the on-board gun
The military stations, Salyut 2, Salyut 3, and Salyut 5, were also known as Almaz stations.
Salyut 3 (Салют-3; Salute 3; also known as OPS-2 or Almaz 2 ) was a Soviet space station launched on 25 June 1974.

Valeri Polyakov

Valeriy PolyakovValery PolyakovV. Polyakov
The duration record for a single spaceflight is 437.75 days, set by Valeri Polyakov aboard Mir from 1994 to 1995.
He is the holder of the record for the longest single stay in space in human history, staying aboard the Mir space station for more than 14 months (437 days 18 hours) during one trip.

Salyut 2

The military stations, Salyut 2, Salyut 3, and Salyut 5, were also known as Almaz stations.
Salyut 2 (OPS-1) (Салют-2 meaning Salute 2) was a Soviet space station which was launched in 1973 as part of the Salyut programme.

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
China, India, Russia, and the U.S., as well as Bigelow Aerospace and Axiom Space, are all planning other stations for the coming decades.
Many other Soviet and Russian space exploration records ensued, including the first spacewalk performed by Alexei Leonov, Luna 9 was the first spacecraft to land on the Moon, Zond 5 brought the first Earthlings (two tortoises and other life forms) to circumnavigate the Moon, Venera 7 was the first to land on another planet (Venus), Mars 3 then the first to land on Mars, the first space exploration rover Lunokhod 1, and the first space station Salyut 1 and Mir.

Bigelow Aerospace

BigelowBigelow Resourcesplans to build a space hotel
China, India, Russia, and the U.S., as well as Bigelow Aerospace and Axiom Space, are all planning other stations for the coming decades.
The space station will include both Sundancer and B330 expandable spacecraft modules and a central docking node, propulsion, solar arrays, and attached crew capsules.

The Brick Moon

The first mention of anything resembling a space station occurred in Edward Everett Hale's 1869 "The Brick Moon".
They survive, and so the story also provides the first known fictional description of a space station.