Spacecraft

spaceshipspaceshipsspace shipspace probeshipspace craftrocket shipshipsspace vehiclesspacecraft communication
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.wikipedia
1,666 Related Articles

Human spaceflight

space travelmannedmanned spaceflight
A type of artificial satellite, spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, Earth observation, meteorology, navigation, space colonization, planetary exploration, and transportation of humans and cargo.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.

Spaceflight

space travelspace flightspace transport
A type of artificial satellite, spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, Earth observation, meteorology, navigation, space colonization, planetary exploration, and transportation of humans and cargo. A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spaceflight can occur with spacecraft with or without humans on board.

Sub-orbital spaceflight

suborbitalsub-orbitalsuborbital flight
On a sub-orbital spaceflight, a space vehicle enters space and then returns to the surface, without having gained sufficient energy or velocity to make a full orbit of the Earth.
A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches outer space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.

Space station

space stationsorbital stationstation
Spacecraft used for human spaceflight carry people on board as crew or passengers from start or on orbit (space stations) only, whereas those used for robotic space missions operate either autonomously or telerobotically. Other Soviet crewed spacecraft include the Voskhod, Soyuz, flown uncrewed as Zond/L1, L3, TKS, and the Salyut and Mir crewed space stations.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting a human crew in orbit for an extended period of time that lacks major propulsion or landing systems.

Orbital spaceflight

orbitalorbitorbital flight
For orbital spaceflights, spacecraft enter closed orbits around the Earth or around other celestial bodies.
An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight) is a spaceflight in which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least one orbit.

Space capsule

capsulecrew capsulescrew capsule
Recoverable spacecraft may be subdivided by method of reentry to Earth into non-winged space capsules and winged spaceplanes.
A space capsule is an often crewed blunt-body spacecraft that reenters the Earth's atmosphere without wings.

Satellite

satellitesartificial satelliteartificial satellites
A type of artificial satellite, spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, Earth observation, meteorology, navigation, space colonization, planetary exploration, and transportation of humans and cargo.
Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites.

Spaceplane

space planesuborbital spaceplanespaceplanes
Recoverable spacecraft may be subdivided by method of reentry to Earth into non-winged space capsules and winged spaceplanes.
A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that can fly like an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere and maneuver like a spacecraft in the vacuum of space.

Space vehicle

spaceshiprocket shiprocket
On a sub-orbital spaceflight, a space vehicle enters space and then returns to the surface, without having gained sufficient energy or velocity to make a full orbit of the Earth.
The earliest space vehicles were expendable launch systems, consisting of rocket launch vehicles carrying spacecraft payloads (satellites or human-bearing space capsules) which were relatively small portions of the total vehicle size and mass. The single or multistage rocket without the payload is referred to as a launch vehicle.

Interstellar probe

interstellarinterstellar mission
To date, only a handful of interstellar probes, such as Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2, and New Horizons, are on trajectories that leave the Solar System.
In April 2016, scientists announced Breakthrough Starshot, a Breakthrough Initiatives program, to develop a proof-of-concept fleet of small centimeter-sized light sail spacecraft, named StarChip, capable of making the journey to Alpha Centauri, the nearest extrasolar star system, at speeds of 20% and 15% of the speed of light, taking between 20 and 30 years to reach the star system, respectively, and about 4 years to notify Earth of a successful arrival.

Vostok (spacecraft)

VostokVostok spacecraftVostok 3KA
There were five other crewed missions which used a Vostok spacecraft.
The Vostok (Восток, translated as "East") was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Union.

Soyuz (spacecraft)

SoyuzSoyuz spacecraftSoyuz capsule
Other Soviet crewed spacecraft include the Voskhod, Soyuz, flown uncrewed as Zond/L1, L3, TKS, and the Salyut and Mir crewed space stations.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.

Mir

Mir space stationSpace Station MirMir'' space station
Other Soviet crewed spacecraft include the Voskhod, Soyuz, flown uncrewed as Zond/L1, L3, TKS, and the Salyut and Mir crewed space stations.
It had a greater mass than any previous spacecraft.

Voskhod (spacecraft)

VoskhodVoskhod spacecraftVoskhod 3KD
Other Soviet crewed spacecraft include the Voskhod, Soyuz, flown uncrewed as Zond/L1, L3, TKS, and the Salyut and Mir crewed space stations.
The Voskhod (Восход, "Sunrise") was a spacecraft built by the Soviet Union's space program for human spaceflight as part of the Voskhod programme.

Launch vehicle

carrier rocketlaunch systemspace launch vehicle
All spacecraft except single-stage-to-orbit vehicles cannot get into space on their own, and require a launch vehicle (carrier rocket).
Orbital spaceflight requires a satellite or spacecraft payload to be accelerated to very high velocity.

TKS (spacecraft)

TKS spacecraftTKSKosmos 1443
Other Soviet crewed spacecraft include the Voskhod, Soyuz, flown uncrewed as Zond/L1, L3, TKS, and the Salyut and Mir crewed space stations.
The TKS spacecraft (Транспортный корабль снабжения, Transportnyi Korabl’ Snabzheniia, Transport Supply Spacecraft, GRAU index 11F72) was a Soviet spacecraft conceived in the late 1960s for resupply flights to the military Almaz space station.

Space Shuttle orbiter

orbiterSpace ShuttleOrbiter Vehicle
Other American crewed spacecraft include the Gemini spacecraft, Apollo spacecraft including the Apollo Lunar Module, the Skylab space station, and the Space Shuttle with undetached European Spacelab and private US Spacehab space stations-modules.
The Space Shuttle orbiter is the spaceplane component of the Space Shuttle, a partially reusable orbital spacecraft system that was part of the Space Shuttle program.

Space Shuttle

Shuttlespace shuttlesSpace Shuttle Program
The first partially reusable orbital spacecraft, a winged non-capsule, the Space Shuttle, was launched by the USA on the 20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight, on April 12, 1981.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system that was operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program.

Buran programme

BuranBuran programBuran shuttle
The first automatic partially reusable spacecraft was the Buran-class shuttle, launched by the USSR on November 15, 1988, although it made only one flight and this was uncrewed.
The Buran programme (Бура́н, "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"), also known as the "VKK Space Orbiter programme" ("VKK" is for Воздушно Космический Корабль, "Air Space Ship"), was a Soviet and later Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow and was formally suspended in 1993.

North American X-15

X-15North American X-15A-2X-15 rocket plane
The first example of such was the North American X-15 spaceplane, which conducted two crewed flights which reached an altitude of over 100 km in the 1960s.
The X-15 set speed and altitude records in the 1960s, reaching the edge of outer space and returning with valuable data used in aircraft and spacecraft design.

Apollo (spacecraft)

Apollo spacecraftApolloLaunch Escape System
Other American crewed spacecraft include the Gemini spacecraft, Apollo spacecraft including the Apollo Lunar Module, the Skylab space station, and the Space Shuttle with undetached European Spacelab and private US Spacehab space stations-modules.
The design was based on the lunar orbit rendezvous approach: two docked spacecraft were sent to the Moon and went into lunar orbit.

Atmospheric entry

atmospheric reentryreentryre-entry
Recoverable spacecraft may be subdivided by method of reentry to Earth into non-winged space capsules and winged spaceplanes.
A thermal protection system or TPS is the barrier that protects a spacecraft during the searing heat of atmospheric reentry.

Solar and Heliospheric Observatory

SOHOSolar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)SWAN
The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a spacecraft built by a European industrial consortium led by Matra Marconi Space (now Airbus Defence and Space) that was launched on a Lockheed Martin Atlas II AS launch vehicle on December 2, 1995 to study the Sun.

Robotic spacecraft

roboticunmanned space missionprobe
Spacecraft used for human spaceflight carry people on board as crew or passengers from start or on orbit (space stations) only, whereas those used for robotic space missions operate either autonomously or telerobotically.
Spacecraft propulsion is a method that allows a spacecraft to travel through space by generating thrust to push it forward.

Sputnik 2

2first animal to orbit
Sputnik 2 (, Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, Простейший Спутник 2, Elementary Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on 3 November 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a Soviet space dog named Laika.