Spahbed

ispahbadhSpahbodIspahbadSepahbodspāhbedEran spahbodEran-spahbedAstabadhcommanding the royal armiesEran spahbed
Spāhbed (also spelled spahbod and spahbad, early form spāhpat) is a Middle Persian title meaning "army chief" used chiefly in the Sasanian Empire.wikipedia
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Military of the Sasanian Empire

Sasanian armySassanid armyPersian army
Originally there was a single spāhbed, called the Ērān-spāhbed, who functioned as the generalissimo of the Sasanian army.

Khosrow I

Khosrau IChosroes IChosroes
From the time of Khosrow I (r. Again, during the Iberian War (526–532), a man named Aspebedes (i.e. Bawi), according to the historian Procopius a maternal uncle of Khosrow I (r.
The family also held the important position of spahbed of the West, i.e. the Sasanian Empire's southwestern regions (Khwarwaran).

Ispahsalar

sipahsalarSipah Salarsipah-salar
An equivalent title of Persian origin, ispahsālār, gained great currency across the Muslim world in the 10th–15th centuries.
It was the equivalent of the old Sasanian title of Spahbed (New Persian ispahbadh), which during the Islamic era fell out of general use and became a regnal title among certain local dynasties in Tabaristan and Khurasan.

Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
Spāhbed (also spelled spahbod and spahbad, early form spāhpat) is a Middle Persian title meaning "army chief" used chiefly in the Sasanian Empire. The institution of the Georgian rank spaspet, like its rough equivalent sparapet in neighboring Armenia, was designed under the influence of the Sasanian Persian spahbed, but differed in that it was a non-hereditary rank and included not only military, but also civil functions.
The head of the Magi priestly class, the mowbedan mowbed, along with the commander-in-chief, the spahbed, the head of traders and merchants syndicate Ho Tokhshan Bod and minister of agriculture (wastaryoshan-salar), who was also head of farmers, were, below the emperor, the most powerful men of the Sassanid state.

Sparapet

[a]sparapetConstablemilitary commander
The title was also adopted by the Armenians (սպարապետ, [[sparapet|[a]sparapet]]) and the Georgians (სპასპეტი, spaspeti), as well as Khotan (spāta) and the Sogdians (spʾdpt) in Central Asia. The institution of the Georgian rank spaspet, like its rough equivalent sparapet in neighboring Armenia, was designed under the influence of the Sasanian Persian spahbed, but differed in that it was a non-hereditary rank and included not only military, but also civil functions.
Sparapet was the equivalent of the Parthian Spahbed from which it is borrowed (cf.

Tabaristan

TapuriaTabarestanTapuri
After the Muslim conquest of Persia, the spāhbed of the East managed to retain his authority over the inaccessible mountainous region of Tabaristan on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea, where the title, often in its Islamic form ispahbadh (in اصبهبذ ʾiṣbahbaḏ), survived as a regnal title until the Mongol conquests of the 13th century.
When the Sasanian Empire fell, Yazdegerd III ordered Adhar Valash to cede the dominion to spahbed Gil Gavbara in 645 CE, while western and Southern Gilan and other parts of Gil's domain merged under the name of Tapuria.

Iran (word)

IranĒrānEranshahr
Until the early 6th century, there was a single holder of the title, the Ērān-spāhbed, who according to the list of precedence provided by the 9th-century Muslim historian Ya'qubi occupied the fifth position in the court hierarchy.
It also appears in the titles of government officers, such as in Ērān-āmārgar "Accountant-General of Ērān", Ērān-dibirbed "Chief Scribe of Ērān", and Ērān-spāhbed "Spahbed of Ērān".

Shahrbaraz

Sasanid general ShahrbarazShahrvarazShahrwaraz
Other holders of the rank are difficult to identify from the literary sources, since the office of spāhbed was held in tandem with other offices and titles, such as Shahrwarāz ("Boar of the Empire"), which are often treated as personal names.
Before usurping the Sasanian throne he was a general (spahbed) under Khosrow II (590–628).

Bawi

Again, during the Iberian War (526–532), a man named Aspebedes (i.e. Bawi), according to the historian Procopius a maternal uncle of Khosrow I (r.
He is also known as Aspebedes, which is a corruption of the title spahbed.

Azerbaijan (Iran)

AzerbaijanIranian AzerbaijanAdharbayjan
Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr): the "army chief of the East (Khurasan)" (kust ī khwarāsān spāhbed), the "army chief of the South" (kust ī nēmrōz spāhbed), the "army chief of the West" (kust ī khwarbārān spāhbed), and the "army chief of Azerbaijan" (kust ī Ādurbādagān spāhbed, where the northwestern province of Azerbaijan substitutes the term "north" because of the latter's negative connotations).
During the Arab invasion of Iran, the Spahbed of Iran was Rostam Farrokhzad, the son of Farrukh Hormizd, who was the son of Vinduyih, the uncle of Khosrau I and brother of the Sasanian usurper Vistahm.

Lieutenant general

Lieutenant-GeneralLt. Gen.Lt Gen
The title was revived in the 20th century by the Pahlavi dynasty, in the Modern Persian form sepahbod, equivalent to a three-star Lieutenant General, ranking below arteshbod (full General).

Bozorgmehr

BuzurjmihrWuzurgmihr
531 – 579)). He also served as the military commander (spahbed) of Khwarasan under Khosrow I and his successor Hormizd IV ((r.

Kavad I

Kavadh IKavadKavadh
Some modern scholars have interpreted astabed as a new office corresponding to the Byzantine magister officiorum, supposedly instituted by Kavadh I shortly before 503 for the purpose of weakening the authority of the wuzurg framadar.
The empire was divided into four frontier regions, with a military commander (spahbed) in charge of each district; a chancery was also added to keep the soldiers equipped.

Golon Mihran

Gurgin Milad
Golon Mihran, also known as Mihran Mihrevandak, was a Sasanian spahbed, and also the marzban of Persian Armenia from 572 to 574.

Hormizd IV

Hormizd
As this reform was mentioned only in later literary sources, the historicity of this division, or its survival after Khosrow I's reign, was questioned in the past, but a series of thirteen recently discovered seals, which provide the names of eight spāhbeds, provide contemporary evidence from the reigns of Khosrow I and his successor, Hormizd IV (r.
Many had been distinguished figures under Hormizd's father, such as the latter's famous minister (wuzurg framadar) Bozorgmehr; the military commander (spahbed) of Khwarasan, Chihr-Burzen; the spahbed of Nemroz, Bahram-i Mah Adhar; the distinguished dignitary Izadgushasp; the spahbed of the southwest (Khwarwaran), Shapur, an Ispahbudhan nobleman who was the father of Vistahm; Vinduyih; and an unnamed daughter whom Hormizd had married.

Chihr-Burzen

Simah-i Burzin
Chihr-Burzen, also known as Simah-i Burzin, was an Iranian nobleman from the House of Karen, who served as the Sasanian spahbed of Khorasan.

Khosrow II

Khosrau IIChosroes IIKhosrow Parviz
579–590); P. Pourshariati suggests that two may date to the reign of Khosrow II (r.
After his victory, Khosrow rewarded his uncles with high positions: Vinduyih became treasurer and first minister and Vistahm received the post of spahbed of the East, encompassing Tabaristan and Khorasan, which was the traditional homeland of the Ispahbudhan.

Marzban

marzpanmarzbānMarzoban
A further factor of confusion in later literary sources is the interchangeable use of the rank with the junior provincial ranks of marzbān ("frontier-warden, margrave") and pāygōsbān ("district guardian").
There is some uncertainty for the exact relationship between titles marzbān, spāhbed, kanārang, pāygōsbān (Parthian ptykwspn, Sasanian paygospān or padhospān) and ostāndār.

Vistahm

rebellion of Vistahm
The family also held the important position of spahbed of the West, i.e. the Sasanian Empire's southwestern regions (the Sawad).

Dabuyid dynasty

DabuyidDabuyids
This marked the foundation of the Dabuyid dynasty, which ruled Tabaristan until 759–761, when it was conquered by the Abbasids and incorporated into the Caliphate as a province.
In addition to the titles granted by Yazdegerd, the Dabuyid rulers also bore the old Iranian military rank of ispahbadh as their regnal title.

Bavand dynasty

BavandidBavandidsBavand
The title ispahbadh was also claimed by other lines of local rulers in the region, who claimed distant descent from the Sasanian past: the Karen family, who saw themselves as heirs of the Dabuyids and ruled central and western Tabaristan until 839/840, and the Bavandid dynasty in the eastern mountains, whose various branches survived until well after the Mongol conquests of the 13th century.
Both claimed Sasanian origin and titelature, with the Bavandids styling themselves as "kings of Tabaristan" and, like the Karenids, claiming the title of ispahbadh.

Bahram-i Mah Adhar

According to the seals, under both Khosrow and Hormizd, Bahram was the military governor-general (spahbed) of the southern region of the Sasanian Empire (kūst-i nēmrōz).

Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr

kustNemrozkusts
Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr): the "army chief of the East (Khurasan)" (kust ī khwarāsān spāhbed), the "army chief of the South" (kust ī nēmrōz spāhbed), the "army chief of the West" (kust ī khwarbārān spāhbed), and the "army chief of Azerbaijan" (kust ī Ādurbādagān spāhbed, where the northwestern province of Azerbaijan substitutes the term "north" because of the latter's negative connotations).
For the former there are examples such as "Eran-xwarrah-Shapur" (The glory of Eran (of) Shapur), "Eran-ashan-kard-kavadh" (Kavadh pacified Eran) and for the latter "Eran-amargar" (Accountant-General), ”Eran-dibīrbed" (Chief Secretary), ”Eran-drustbed“ (Chief Medical Officer), ”Eran-hambāragbed" (Commander of the Arsenal), and ”Eran-spāhbed“ (Commander-in-Chief).

Aspbed

asp(a)bedAspbad
But it is likely that this Syriac word is simply a corrupted form of spāhbed (which is normally recorded as aspabid in Syriac), or possibly asp(a)bed ("chief of the cavalry"), since the Greek sources give the name of the second man as Aspebedes (Latin: Aspebedus), Aspevedes, or Aspetios (Latin: Aspetius).
* Spahbed

Spaspet

Commander (მთავარსარდალი)
The institution of the Georgian rank spaspet, like its rough equivalent sparapet in neighboring Armenia, was designed under the influence of the Sasanian Persian spahbed, but differed in that it was a non-hereditary rank and included not only military, but also civil functions.
The institution of spaspet, like its rough equivalent sparapet in neighboring Armenia, was designed under the influence of the Sassanian Persian spahbed, but differed in that it was a non-hereditary rank and included not only military, but also civil functions.