Spanish American wars of independence

wars of independenceindependenceSouth America's successful struggle for independenceSpanish American independencestruggle for independence from Spaincomplex series of revoltsemancipation of Central America from Spanish ruleindependence movementsindependence of the former SpanishSouth American Independence wars
The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, shortly after the French invasion of Spain in 1807 during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.wikipedia
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Spanish Empire

SpanishSpainSpanish colonies
The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, shortly after the French invasion of Spain in 1807 during Europe's Napoleonic Wars. After securing the independence of Chile in 1818, San Martín concentrated on building a naval fleet in the Pacific to counter Spanish control of those waters and reach the royalist stronghold of Lima.
The Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian peninsula precipitated the Spanish American wars of independence (1808–1826), resulting in the loss of its most valuable colonies.

Peninsular War

Peninsula WarSpanish War of IndependencePeninsula
The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, shortly after the French invasion of Spain in 1807 during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.
The cumulative crises and disruptions of invasion, revolution and restoration led to the independence of most of Spain's American colonies and the independence of Brazil from Portugal.

Retroversion of the sovereignty to the people

retroversion of the sovereignty of the peoplenumerous new JuntasLatin American independence
In 1810, numerous new juntas appeared across the Spanish domains in the Americas when the Central Junta fell to the French invasion.
The Retroversion of the sovereignty to the people, which challenged the legitimacy of the colonial authorities, was the principle underlying the Spanish American Independence processes.

Revolutionary wave

export the revolutionexport of the revolutionexport revolution
The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, shortly after the French invasion of Spain in 1807 during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.

Hispanic America

Spanish AmericaSpanish AmericanAmerica
The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, shortly after the French invasion of Spain in 1807 during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.
Napoleon's takeover of Spain in 1808 and the consequent chaos initiated the dismemberment of the Spanish Empire, as the Hispanic American territories began their struggle for emancipation.

Spanish–American War

Spanish-American Warwar with SpainSpanish American War
Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule until the Spanish–American War in 1898.
The combined problems arising from the Peninsular War (1807–1814), the loss of most of its colonies in the Americas in the early 19th-century Spanish American wars of independence, and three Carlist Wars (1832–1876) marked the low point of Spanish colonialism.

Chuquisaca Revolution

ChuquisacaCharcas (May 25)revolution
The violent conflicts started in 1809 with short-lived governing juntas established in Chuquisaca and Quito in opposing the government of the Supreme Central Junta of Seville.
The revolution is known in Bolivia as the "First libertarian scream" (Primer grito libertario), meaning, the first step in the Spanish American wars of independence; but historians dispute whether such a description is accurate or not.

Napoleonic Wars

Napoleonic WarNapoleonicwar with France
The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, shortly after the French invasion of Spain in 1807 during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.
The war in Iberia greatly weakened Spanish power, and the Spanish Empire began to unravel; Spain would lose nearly all of its American possessions by 1833.

Enlightenment in Spain

SpainKingdom of SpainSpanish
Ideas about free trade and physiocratic economics were raised by the Enlightenment in Spain and spread to the overseas empire and a homegrown Spanish American Enlightenment.
The ideas of the Hispanic Enlightenment have been seen as a major contributor to the Spanish American wars of independence, although the situation is more complex.

Inquisition

Holy Inquisitioninquisitorinquisitors
The new republics from the beginning abolished the formal system of racial classification and hierarchy, casta system, the Inquisition, and noble titles.
With the exception of the Papal States, the institution of the Inquisition was abolished in the early 19th century, after the Napoleonic Wars in Europe and the Spanish American wars of independence in the Americas.

Military career of Simón Bolívar

Simón BolívarSimón Bolívar's ArmyBolívar's army
In northern South America, New Granadan and Venezuelan patriots, under leaders such as Simón Bolívar, Francisco de Paula Santander, Santiago Mariño, Manuel Piar and José Antonio Páez, carried out campaigns in the vast Orinoco River basin and along the Caribbean coast, often with material aid coming from Curaçao and Haiti.
The military and political career of Simón Bolívar, (July 24, 1783 – December 17, 1830), which included both formal service in the armies of various revolutionary regimes and actions organized by himself or in collaboration with other exiled patriot leaders during the years from 1811 to 1830, was an important element in the success of the independence wars in South America.

Ferdinand VII of Spain

Ferdinand VIIFernando VIIKing Ferdinand VII
After the restoration of rule by Ferdinand VII in 1814, and his rejection of the Spanish liberal constitution of 1812, the monarchy as well as liberals hardened their stance toward its overseas possessions, and they in turn increasingly sought political independence.
Under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, and the country entered into civil war on his death.

Simón Bolívar

Simon BolivarBolívarSimón Bolivar
In Venezuela during his Admirable Campaign, Simón Bolívar instituted a policy of a war to the death, in which royalist Spanish Americans would be purposely spared but even neutral Peninsulares would be killed, in order to drive a wedge between the two groups.
Taking advantage of the disorder in Spain prompted by the Peninsular War, Bolívar began his campaign for independence in 1808.

Revolt of the Comuneros (New Granada)

Revolt of the ComunerosComunero Revoltcomunero rebellions of 1781.
In other areas, the changes in the crown's economic and administrative policies led to tensions with locals, which at times erupted into open revolts, such as the Revolt of the Comuneros in New Granada and the Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II in Peru.
The initial revolt was local and not well known outside the region of Socorro, but in the late nineteenth century, historian Manuel Briceño saw the massive revolt as a precursor to independence.

Battle of Ayacucho

AyacuchoAyacucho disastermajor battle for independence
It is estimated that in the Battle of Maipú only a quarter of the royalist forces were European soldiers, in the Battle of Carabobo about a fifth, and in the Battle of Ayacucho less than 1% was European.
In Peru it is considered the end of the Spanish American wars of independence, although the campaign of the victor Antonio José de Sucre, continued through 1825 in Upper Peru and the siege of the fortresses Chiloé and Callao finally ended in 1826.

José de San Martín

San MartínGeneral San MartínSan Martin
In the Southern Cone, a veteran of the Spanish army with experience in the Peninsular War, José de San Martín, became the governor of the Province of Cuyo.
José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras (25 February 1778 - 17 August 1850), known simply as José de San Martín or El Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru, was a Spanish-Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern and central parts of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru.

Spanish reconquest of New Granada

Spanish invasion of New GranadaSpanish royalist reconquestSpanish expeditionary force
(See, Spanish reconquest of New Granada.) Although this force was crucial in retaking a solidly pro-independence region like New Granada, its soldiers were eventually spread out throughout Venezuela, New Granada, Quito, and Peru and were lost to tropical diseases, diluting their impact on the war.
The Spanish Invasion of New Granada in 1815–1816 was part of the Spanish American wars of independence in South America.

Army of the North

Northern Armythree United Provinces campaigns
This was an important change in strategy after three United Provinces campaigns had been defeated in Upper Peru.
The Army of the North (Ejército del Norte), contemporaneously called Army of Peru, was one of the armies deployed by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in the Spanish American wars of independence.

Francisco de Paula Santander

Francisco de Paula Santander y OmañaSantanderFrancisco de Paula Santander Room
In northern South America, New Granadan and Venezuelan patriots, under leaders such as Simón Bolívar, Francisco de Paula Santander, Santiago Mariño, Manuel Piar and José Antonio Páez, carried out campaigns in the vast Orinoco River basin and along the Caribbean coast, often with material aid coming from Curaçao and Haiti.
A law student, he began his military career at the young age of eighteen, following the establishment of juntas in 1810, which began the process of independence in New Granada.

Hacienda

haciendashacendadoestate
In a financial crisis of 1804, the crown attempted to call in debts owed the church, mainly in the form of mortgages for haciendas owned by the elites.
In South America, the hacienda remained after the collapse of the colonial system in the early 19th century when nations gained independence.

Wars of national liberation

national liberationnational liberation movementsliberation war
These conflicts were fought both as irregular warfare and conventional warfare, and as wars of national liberation and civil wars.

British Legions

British LegionBritish and IrishBritish recruits
Unlike San Martín, however, Bolívar did not have a professionally trained army, but rather a quickly assembled mix of Llanero guerrillas, New Granadan exiles led by Santander and British recruits.
The British Legion or British Legions were foreign volunteer units that fought under Simón Bolívar against Spain for the independence of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and José de San Martín for the independence of Peru in the Spanish American wars of independence.

Peninsulars

PeninsularesPeninsularGachupin
Criollos (those of Spanish descent born in the New World) and mestizos (those of mixed American Indian and Spanish blood or culture) replaced Spanish-born appointees in most political governments.
In some places and times, such as during the wars of independence, peninsulares were called deprecatively godos (meaning Goths, referring to the "Visigoths", who had ruled Spain) or, in Mexico, gachupines or gauchos.

Chilean War of Independence

Chilean IndependenceIndependence of ChileChile
After securing the independence of Chile in 1818, San Martín concentrated on building a naval fleet in the Pacific to counter Spanish control of those waters and reach the royalist stronghold of Lima.
The Chilean War of Independence was part of the more aroused Spanish American wars of independence.

Atlantic Revolutions

AtlanticThe Vindicators of the Rights of Mankind in every Quarter of the Globe
The process of Latin American independence took place in the general political and intellectual climate that emerged from the Age of Enlightenment and that influenced all of the Atlantic Revolutions, including the earlier revolutions in the United States and France.