Spanish Armada

ArmadaBattle of GravelinesSpanish invasionGreat ArmadaArmada InvencibleInvincible ArmadaNavy1588 ArmadaArmada CrisisGravelines
The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada) was a Habsburg Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from Corunna in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.wikipedia
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Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia

Duke of Medina SidoniaAlonso de Guzmán El Bueno, 7th Duke of Medina SidoniaDuke of Medina Sedonia
The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada) was a Habsburg Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from Corunna in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
Alonso Pérez de Guzmán y de Zúñiga-Sotomayor, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia (10 September 1550 – 26 July 1615), was a Spanish aristocrat who was most noted for his role as commander of the Spanish Armada that was to attack the south of England in 1588.

Philip II of Spain

Philip IIKing Philip IIPhilip
Medina Sidonia was an aristocrat without naval command experience but was made commander by King Philip II.
He sent a large armada to invade Protestant England in 1588, with the strategic aim of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and re-establishing Catholicism there.

Isle of Wight

IOWWightIsland
The Armada could have anchored in The Solent between the Isle of Wight and the English mainland and occupied the Isle of Wight, but Medina Sidonia was under orders from King Philip II to meet up with the Duke of Parma's forces in the Netherlands so England could be invaded by Parma's soldiers and other soldiers carried in ships of the Armada.
The island has played an important part in the defence of the ports of Southampton and Portsmouth, and been near the front-line of conflicts through the ages, including the Spanish Armada and the Battle of Britain.

Francis Drake

Sir Francis DrakeDrakeDrake, Francis
English guns damaged the Armada and a Spanish ship was captured by Sir Francis Drake in the English Channel. A raid on Cádiz, led by Francis Drake in April 1587, had captured or destroyed about 30 ships and great quantities of supplies, setting preparations back by a year. Twelve of the ships were privateers owned by Lord Howard of Effingham, Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake.
As a Vice Admiral, he was second-in-command of the English fleet in the battle against the Spanish Armada in 1588.

A Coruña

CorunnaLa CoruñaCoruña
The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada) was a Habsburg Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from Corunna in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
From the port of Ferrol in the Province of A Coruña, Philip II left to marry Mary Tudor in 1554, and much later, in 1588, from the same port the Spanish Armada would set sail to the Spanish Netherlands and England.

Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)

Anglo-Spanish WarAnglo–Spanish WarAnglo–Spanish War (1585–1604)
The expedition was the largest engagement of the undeclared Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604).
The English enjoyed some victories at Cádiz in 1587, and saw the Spanish Armada retreat in 1588, but then suffered severe defeats of the English Armada in 1589 and the Drake–Hawkins and Essex–Raleigh expeditions in 1595 and 1597 respectively.

English Armada

Counter ArmadaEnglish expeditionDrake-Norris Expedition
The following year, England organised a similar large-scale campaign against Spain, the English Armada, sometimes called the "counter-Armada of 1589", which was also unsuccessful.
It was led by Sir Francis Drake as admiral and Sir John Norreys as general, and failed to drive home the advantage England had won upon the destruction of the Spanish Armada in the previous year.

English Channel

Channelthe Channelcross-channel
English guns damaged the Armada and a Spanish ship was captured by Sir Francis Drake in the English Channel.
The most significant failed invasion threats came when the Dutch and Belgian ports were held by a major continental power, e.g. from the Spanish Armada in 1588, Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars, and Nazi Germany during World War II.

Armada

Armada (disambiguation)
The word armada is from the armada, which is cognate with English army.

Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth IQueen Elizabeth IQueen Elizabeth
The aim was to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I and her establishment of Protestantism in England, to stop English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and to stop the harm caused by English and Dutch privateering ships that interfered with Spanish interests in the Americas.
England's defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history.

Habsburg Spain

SpainSpanishSpanish Habsburgs
The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada) was a Habsburg Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from Corunna in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
Philip sent the Spanish Armada to attack England.

Portuguese Navy

NavyPortugueseJoão de Sepúvelda
Armada (originally from its armadas) was also the Portuguese traditional term (now alternative, but in common use) of the Portuguese Navy.
The Portuguese Navy was soon ordered by King Philip to contribute to the Spanish Armada intended to invade England, although England was an old Portuguese ally which now started to be considered an enemy because of the Portuguese alignment with the Spanish policies.

Singeing the King of Spain's Beard

singed the King of Spain's beardCádizraid on Cadiz
A raid on Cádiz, led by Francis Drake in April 1587, had captured or destroyed about 30 ships and great quantities of supplies, setting preparations back by a year.
The damage caused by the English delayed Spanish plans to invade England by more than a year.

Spanish Navy

SpanishNavyArmada Española
Armada Española is still the Spanish term for the modern Spanish Navy.
The effort to neutralise this threat led to a disastrous attempt to invade England in 1588.

Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham

Lord Howard of EffinghamCharles HowardCharles Howard, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham
Twelve of the ships were privateers owned by Lord Howard of Effingham, Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake.
He was commander of the English forces during the battles against the Spanish Armada and was chiefly responsible after Francis Drake for the victory that saved England from invasion by the Spanish Empire.

Kingdom of England

EnglandEnglishAnglo
The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada) was a Habsburg Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from Corunna in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
By 1588, her new navy was strong enough to defeat the Spanish Armada, which had sought to invade England to put a Catholic monarch on the throne in her place.

Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma

Alexander FarneseDuke of ParmaAlessandro Farnese
While awaiting communications from Duke of Parma, the Armada was scattered by an English fireship night attack and abandoned its rendezvous with Parma's army, that was blockaded in harbour by Dutch flyboats.
Philip overruled him, and began the work that led to the Spanish Armada.

Flyboat

fly-boatFlyvlieboot
While awaiting communications from Duke of Parma, the Armada was scattered by an English fireship night attack and abandoned its rendezvous with Parma's army, that was blockaded in harbour by Dutch flyboats.
In 1588, the army of Alexander Farnese was blocked in Dunkirk by a fleet of 30 Dutch flyboats commanded by Lieutenant Admiral Justin of Nassau, preventing him from joining the Spanish Armada to invade England.

John Hawkins (naval commander)

John HawkinsSir John HawkinsHawkins
Twelve of the ships were privateers owned by Lord Howard of Effingham, Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake.
As Treasurer of the Navy (1577-1595) and comptroller (1589) of the Royal Navy, Hawkins rebuilt older ships and helped design the faster ships that withstood the Spanish Armada in 1588.

Privateer

privateersprivateeringcorsair
The aim was to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I and her establishment of Protestantism in England, to stop English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and to stop the harm caused by English and Dutch privateering ships that interfered with Spanish interests in the Americas. Twelve of the ships were privateers owned by Lord Howard of Effingham, Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake. Elizabeth retaliated against Philip by supporting the Dutch revolt against Spain, as well as funding privateers to raid Spanish ships across the Atlantic.
A number of privateers were part of the English fleet that opposed the Spanish Armada in 1588.

Crusades

crusadeCrusadersCrusader
The King was supported by Pope Sixtus V, who treated the invasion as a crusade, with the promise of a subsidy should the Armada make land.
In the 16thcentury the rivalry between Catholic monarchs prevented anti-Protestant crusades but individual military actions were rewarded with crusader privileges, includeding the rebellion and the Spanish Armada's attack on Queen Elizabeth I and England.

Martin Frobisher

Sir Martin FrobisherFrobisherCathay Company
However, in a full-scale attack, the English fleet broke into four groups with Martin Frobisher of the ship Aid given command over a squadron, and Drake coming with a large force from the south.
He was later knighted for his service in repelling the Spanish Armada in 1588.

Galleass

galleassesgaleassgalleas
It included 28 purpose-built warships, of which 20 were galleons, four were galleys and four were (Neapolitan) galleasses.

Galleon

galleonsSpanish galleonships
It included 28 purpose-built warships, of which 20 were galleons, four were galleys and four were (Neapolitan) galleasses.
The principal warships of the opposing English and Spanish fleets in the 1588 confrontation of the Spanish Armada were galleons, with the modified English "race-built" galleons developed by John Hawkins proving decisive, while the capacious Spanish galleons, designed primarily as transports, showed great endurance in the battles and in the great storms on the voyage home; most survived the ordeal.

Dutch Revolt

Dutch War of IndependenceDutch rebelsEighty Years' War
Elizabeth retaliated against Philip by supporting the Dutch revolt against Spain, as well as funding privateers to raid Spanish ships across the Atlantic.
The Dutch successes owed not only to his tactical skill but also to the financial burden Spain incurred replacing ships lost in the disastrous campaign of the Spanish Armada in 1588, and the need to refit its navy to recover control of the sea after the subsequent English counterattack.